Species Description: Mangia S, Koroiva R, Sales Nunes PM, Roberto IJ, Avila RW, Sant'Anna AC, Santana DJ, Garda AA 2018 A new species of Proceratorphrys (Amphibia: Anura: Odontophrynidae) from the Arapipe Plateau, Ceara State, Northeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 74: 255-268.
The pointed forearm tubercles are close and protrude outwards on the forearms but many small rounded uniform warts cover the hands and feet. The relative finger lengths are IV < II < I < III with no interdigital webbing. The inner metacarpal tubercle is large and elliptical while the outer metacarpal is divided into two parts with the inner half being are oval and the outer half being elliptical in shape. There are a few small rounded supernumerary tubercles. The subarticular tubercles are large and rounded but grooved anteriorly and posteriorly (Mângia et al. 2018).
The thigh length is longer than the tibia length. The thigh and tibia lengths are 79% of the snout-vent length. The relative toe lengths are I < II < III < IV. The inner metatarsals are large, elliptical and spatulated. Conversely, the outer metatarsals are small and rounded. There are few small rounded supernumerary tubercles while the subarticular tubercles are large, practically round and grooved both anteriorly and posteriorly (Mângia et. al 2018).
Proceratophrys ararype varies from P. appendiculata, P. gladius, P. itamari, P. izecksohni, P. laticeps, P. mantiqueira, P. melanopogon, P. moheringi, P. phyllostomus, P. pombali, P. sanctaritae, P. subguttata, and P. tupinamba by lacking a rostral appendage (it is present in those species). It also differs from P. belzebul, P. boiei, P. paviotii, P. renalis, P. rondonae, due to the fact that it does not have single unicuspidate palpebral in addition to absence of rostral appendages (present in those species; single, short and multicuspidate in P. rondonae). Proceratophrys ararype doesn’t have postocular swellings like P. avelinoi, P. bigibbosa, P. brauni, and P. palustris do. Proceratophrys ararype has short, fused, and blunted warts on upper eyelid border, while P. goyana, P. strussmannae, P. carranca, P. branti, and P. concavitympanum all have fused warts with small points. The warts are small, rounded, and not fused in P. cururu and P. rotundi’s palpebral region, and slightly fused without appendage in P. huntingtoni, P. vielliardi, and P. moratoi. The warts are conical and pointed in P. bagnoi on upper eyelid border. The warts are enlarged, pointed, and the largest tubercle in the middle is more projected than the lateral tubercles in P. minuta. Lastly, the warts on upper eyelid border are small and rounded in P. redacta and have multiple short and pointed expansions in P. schirchi (Mângia et. al 2018).
Proceratophrys ararype differs from P. bagnoi (two rows), P. concavitympanum (two rows), P. dibernardoi (two rows), and P. goyana (no row organization), because it has a single row of tubercles on the forearm. Proceratophrys ararype can be distinguished from P. concavitympanum, even further by the number, size, and disposition of tubercles on the dorsal region: the tubercles in P. ararype are more concentrated on the head, arms, legs, and presacral constriction and are less concentrated and smaller in size on the flanks, sacral-urostyle, and coccyx regions. Whereas in P. concavitympanum, tubercles are uniformly distributed on the dorsal region with no variation in size (Mângia et al. 2018).
A cream-colored ventral region with dark-brown mottling on the gular region, chest, and belly distinguishes P. ararype from P. aridus (has light-brown dots on the gular region and chest, or ventral surface that is cream color), P. branti (has dark spots), P. caramaschii (has light-brown dots on the gular region and chest, or ventral surface that is cream color), P. carranca (has dark spots), P. cristiceps (has light-brown dots on the gular region and chest, or ventral surface that is cream color), P. redacta (has gular region that is blackish, with scattered small, dark-brown dots on the chest), and P. strussmannae (has gular region that is blackish, with scattered small, dark-brown dots on the chest) (Mângia et. al 2018).
Proceratophrys ararype can be distinguished from the sympatric P. cristiceps by its advertisement call, which has a higher number of pulses per second (95.7 – 102.7 in vs 87.4 – 91.9 in P. cristiceps). Proceratophrys ararype has a higher dominant frequency (1033.6 – 1378.1 Hz vs. 900 – 990 Hz in P. cristiceps). Proceratophrys ararype also differs from P. caramaschii by the higher number of pulses per second (78.6 – 81.8 in P. caramaschii). The advertisement call also distinguishes P. ararype from P. huntingtoni and P. moratoi because it has a longer duration (0.374 – 0.648 s in vs. 0.200 – 0.320 s in P. huntingtoni and 0.179 – 0.335 s in P. moratoi), higher number of pulses per call (38 – 65 in vs. 19 – 25 in P. huntingtoni and 12 – 26 in P. moratoi), and higher number of pulses per second (78 – 95 in P. huntingtoni and 69 – 86 in P. moratoi) (Mângia et al. 2018).
In life, Proceratophrys ararype has a gray background on the dorsum, and is maculated with a variegate brown and dark-brown pattern, resembling dead leaves. The area delimited by the ocular-dorsal ridge of warts is light brown, and bordered along the external sides by a dark-brown band with four wave-like blotches on each side. It also has two brown bands from the eye to the upper lip. It has two to three transverse dark-gray bars on fingers and toes. The ventral region is cream with dark brown mottling on the gular region, chest and belly (Mângia et al. 2018).
In preservation, the dorsal background color becomes a even darker gray color. The area delimited by the ocular-dorsal ridge of warts fade to light gray, and are bordered along external sides by a darkened black band with four wave-like blotches on each side. It has two dark-gray bands from the eye to the upper lip. It has two to three transverse dark-gray bars on the fingers and toes. It still has a ventral surface background color cream with mottling dark brown in the gular region, chest, and belly (Mângia et al. 2018).
Some individuals do not have a complete ocular-dorsal ridge of warts. One individual, a juvenile, has a cream dorsal background color (Mângia et al. 2018).
Distribution and Habitat
Proceratophrys ararype is known from three localities within Araripe and Crato Municipality, Ceara state, Brazil. Specifically, they are known from the type locality at Mata do Clube Recreativo Grangeiro, from Clube Serrano Atlético Cratense, and from Sítio Caianas. Proceratophrys ararype occurs in a 3100 km 2 of remnant forests in Chapada do Araripe, with an altitude of at least 830 m to over 951 m (Mângia et al. 2018).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The reproductive activity of P. ararype is from September to December at which time they use lotic environments to breed (Mângia et al. 2018).
Based on the 120 calls from three males, the advertisement call of P. ararype consists of a pulsed note with a duration of 0.374 – 0.648 s, emitted sporadically with 38 – 65 pulses/call, 95.7 – 102.7 pulses/s, and a dominant frequency of 1033.6 – 1378.1 Hz. Males can be heard calling with Physalaemus cuvieri, Adenomera sp., Dendropsophus minutus, and Scinax ruber from leaf litter 10 – 50 cm away from streams (Mângia et al. 2018).
Trends and Threats
Proceratophrys ararype’s habitat is deeply affected by modification by humans, specifically planting of exotic trees (Cocus nucifera) and creation of recreational trails. The streams and waterways in this palm forest have also been deeply impacted by water diversion efforts for agricultural use. This is a major threat as the lotic environments are essential for reproduction and survival of P. ararype (Mângia et. al 2018).
Proceratophrys ararype shares its habitat with other critically endangered species: Araripe Manakin (Antilophia bokermanni), the endangered freshwater Crab (Kingsleya attenboroughi), the endangered Snake (Atractus ronnie), and the vulnerable mouse (Rhipidomys cariri). The Araripe Plateau is designated as a environmentally protected area for sustainable practices under Brazilian legislation, but it is likely that these restrictions do not protect Proceratophrys ararype’s population from local threats of decline. Further studies are needed to determine threats and management strategies (Mângia et al. 2018).
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
The species authority is: Mângia, S., Koroiva R., Sales Nunes, P. , Roberto, I., Ávila, R., Sant'Anna, A., Santana, D., Garda, A., (2018). “A New Species of Proceratophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Odontophrynidae) from the Araripe Plateau, Ceará State, Northeastern Brazil.” Herpetologica, 74(3): 255-268.
Based on Bayesian analysis of the 16S and rhodopsin genes, P. ararype as the sister taxon with P. concavitympanum from Palmas Municipality, Tocantins state, Brazil (posterior probability = 0.96). The clade formed by these two branches is most closely related to P. concavitympanum from Aripuanã, Mato Grosso, which is considered the typical form of the species. The speciation of P. ararypae is hypothesized to have resulted from P. concavitympanum becaming isolated in forest remnants in Araripe Plateau as a result of the colder climates of the Pleistocene. This population differentiated from P. concavitympanum by adapting to its semiarid Caatinga vegetation. There may be many other relatives to P. concavitympanum that have a similar history of becoming endemic to a fragment of the forest. A larger sample is needed to establish the taxonomic status of the Proceratophrys population from Palmas, but morphologically, a photo specimen from the population more superficially resembles P. concavitympanum than P. ararype (Mângia et al. 2018).
This species is named after the area it is endemic to, the Araripe Plateau, which spans the borders of Ceará, Pernambuco, and Piauí states of Brazil. ‘‘Araripe,’’ from ancient Tupi, "ararype", means ‘‘on the Araras River’’ and "Arara" means "Macaw" in Tupi (Mângia et al. 2018).
Mângia, S., Koroiva, R., Sales Nunes, P. , Roberto, I., Ávila, R., Sant'Anna, A., Santana, D., Garda, A. (2018). ''A New Species of Proceratophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Odontophrynidae) from the Araripe Plateau, Ceará State, Northeastern Brazil.'' Herpetologica, 74(3), 255-268.
Written by: Aileen Lavelle (2018-10-02)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2018-10-03)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2018 Proceratophrys ararype <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/8910> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Apr 14, 2021.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2021. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 14 Apr 2021.
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