Pristimantis leopardus Rivera-Correa, Jiménez-Rivillas & Daza-R., 2017
|Species Description: Rivera-Correa M, Jimenez-Rivillas C, Daza JM 2017 Phylogenetic analysis of the neotropical Pristimantis leptolophus species group (Anura: Craugastoridae): molecular approach and description of a new polymorphic species. Zootaxa 4242: 313-343.|
At the time of the species description, there were eight members of the Pristimantis leptolophus species group of which Prismatis leopardus is part of along with P. leptolophus, P. maculosus, P. parectatus, P. peraticus, P. scoloblepharus, P. stictus, and P. uranobates. Prismatis leopardus can be differentiated from some other species because of its lack of dorsolateral folds, warts on the body, and tubercles on eyelids and heels, except for P. peraticus. Prismatis leopardus can also be differentiated from other species by its coloration, with P. leopardus having a golden to copper body color and notable markings. Similar species lack patterns or defined markings (Rivera-Correa et al. 2017).
In life, P. leopardus has a golden to copper colored dorsal and ventral surface that often has dark brown spots or markings. The belly of most individuals can vary from gray to brown with some darker blotches. Their brown markings are unique, making individuals easier to identify. Since the species is highly polymorphic, the patterns and markings can vary considerably with some not always having clear patterns or large spots. Some of the markings on the gold and copper areas can shine an iridescent green. In ethanol, the markings become black with the rest of the body taking on a brown to gray mixture (Rivera-Correa et al. 2017).
Most of the variation within the species comes from the differences in patterning. Some have much darker spots, blotches, markings, or patterns while others can have barely visible ones (Rivera-Correa et al. 2017).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Colombia
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Naturally nocturnal, the peak activity is between the hours of 7 pm to midnight for this group of frogs (Rivera-Correa et al. 2017).
Pristimantis sp. lay eggs in the absence of water and embryos undergo direct development, completing all development within the egg to hatch as froglets (Amezquita et al. 2019).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
Climate change, increased UVB or increased sensitivity to it, etc.
The species epithet, “leopardus,” is a Latin noun, referring to the patterns of spots and stripes on the dorsal surface. These patterns also resemble the American felid genus, Leopardus (Rivera-Correa et al. 2017).
Amezquita, A., Suarez, G., Palacios-Rodriguez, P., Beltrán, I., Rodríguez, C., Barrientos, L.S., Daza, J.M., Mazariegos, L. (2019) “A new species of Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the cloud forests of Colombian western Andes” Zootaxa, 4648 (3): 537–548 [link]
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2019). "Pristimantis leopardus." The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T114139483A114139487. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2
Rivera-Correa M., Daza, J.M. (2020) “Out of the blue: A new rain frog species of the genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia” Zootaxa 4838 (1): 083–101 [link]
Rivera-Correa, M., Jimenez-Rivillas, C., Daza, J. (2017) “Phylogenetic analysis of the Neotropical Prismantis leptolophus species group (Anura: Craugastoridae): molecular approach and description of a new polymorphic species” Zootaxa, 4242 (2): 313-343 [link]
Originally submitted by: Lauren Neth, Roham Azargoshasbi, Cameron Dillon (2022-07-12)
Description by: Lauren Neth, Roham Azargoshasbi, Cameron Dillon (updated 2022-07-12)
Distribution by: Lauren Neth, Roham Azargoshasbi, Cameron Dillon (updated 2022-07-12)
Life history by: Lauren Neth, Roham Azargoshasbi, Cameron Dillon (updated 2022-07-12)
Trends and threats by: Lauren Neth, Roham Azargoshasbi, Cameron Dillon (updated 2022-07-12)
Comments by: Lauren Neth, Roham Azargoshasbi, Cameron Dillon (updated 2022-07-12)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2022-07-12)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Pristimantis leopardus <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/8604> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 25, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 25 Mar 2023.
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