This species is currently known from 200–1,085 m Asl in eastern Cambodia (Stuart et al. 2006, Jodi Rowley unpubl. data) and central to southern Viet Nam (Smith 1922, Orlov et al. 2002, Nguyen et al. 2009, Jodi Rowley unpubl. data). Similar habitat and elevations to those in its known localities extend into adjacent parts of south-eastern Lao PDR; and further surveys may uncover its presence there, so its range has been projected beyond known sites to include these areas of suitable habitat. The species' EOO is 154,967 km2, which represents four threat-defined locations.
Habitat and Ecology
This species is associated with various forest types including evergreen and evergreen mixed with both bamboo and deciduous (Stuart et al. 2006, Jodi Rowley unpubl. data). It has mostly been observed in or adjacent to streams, muddy seeps (Jodi Rowley unpubl. data), pools, puddles, and drainage ditches (Rowley et al. 2014). In Viet Nam, the species reproduces around May, when males have been observed calling from presumed mating territories (still to slowly flowing, small water bodies), which they are thought to defend from other males (Rowley et al. 2014). A male and female of this species have been observed in a seep area under an overhanging boulder and with eggs scattered around them; eggs were attached to the rocky overhang, vertical surfaces, and on the floor (Rowley et al. 2014). The purpose of this possible oviposition strategy is not known and warrants further research. The species has a free-living aquatic stage; its tadpoles have been observed in muddy pools on the forest floor (Rowley et al. 2014). Habitat throughout much of this species' range is undergoing a continuing decline in quality and extent due to expanding agriculture (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Sodhi et al. 2009, Meyfroidt et al. 2013), and it has been documented breeding in anthropogenically modified habitats such as drainage ditches in the forest (Rowley et al. 2014).
Not much is known about the size of this species' population except that it has been detected in a number of surveys (Smith 1922, Stuart et al. 2006, Nguyen et al. 2009) including a large series between 2007–2009 that covered four provinces in Cambodia and Viet Nam (Jodi Rowley unpubl. data). Deforestation continues to affect habitat in the species' range (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Sodhi et al. 2009, Meyfroidt et al. 2013), and is very likely causing declines. Further surveys are needed to determine its relative abundance and population trends.
Habitat loss and degradation due to rapidly expanding agriculture is an ongoing threat to biodiversity throughout Viet Nam and Cambodia (Sodhi et al. 2009). In the Central Highlands of Viet Nam large areas of forest are converted to agricultural land to grow cash crop plantations (e.g. rubber, coffee and tea) (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Meyfroidt et al. 2013), and in southern Cambodia major causes of forest loss are the illegal removal of certain tree species for the harvest and refinement of safrole oil as well as increasing human settlement, both of which are ongoing within some protected areas (Ohler et al. 2002, Bradfield and Daltry 2009). Recent satellite imagery reveals areas of land cleared for agriculture throughout parts of this species' range, and it is very likely threatened to some degree by habitat loss. The species is also likely to be collected for use as a food source, as are many other Limnonectes species (Rowley et al. 2010), however whether this is occurring at rates that affect its population is not known and warrants investigation.
This species is relatively well-represented in protected areas. In Cambodia it is known from Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area, Phnom Nam Lyr Wildlife Sanctuary and Virachey National Park (Stuart et al. 2006), and in Viet Nam it is known from Nui Ong Nature Reserve (Rowley et al. 2014). A number of other protected areas are included in the species' predicted range; it may occur in some of these also.
Addressing the lack of data is the first step towards ensuring this species' long-term persistence; further research on its true distribution, life history, threats, rates of harvest, and the size and trends of its population would inform conservation decisions.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern as this species is relatively widespread, with an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 154,967 km2, which represents four threat-defined locations.
Limnonectes toumanoffi has been synonymized under this species by Stuart et al. (2006).
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2017. Limnonectes dabanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T88340811A113957701. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T88340811A113957701.en .Downloaded on 18 February 2019