Hoplobatrachus crassus
Jerdon`s Bullfrog
family: Dicroglossidae
subfamily: Dicroglossinae

© 2012 Malaka .M.Bopage (1 of 8)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
Other International Status None
National Status Lower risk-least concern
Regional Status None



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A large frog, snout-vent lengths of males: 60-90 mm and females: 70-135 mm. The color is dorsally olive or yellow with dark brown to black spots. Ventral color is white to yellowish. A yellow vertebral stripe is prominent in some specimen. This species looks very similar to Hoplobatrachus tigerinus.

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.
Terra Typica: Carnatic, India H. crassus is found in Sri Lanka (the largest frog in the Island), southeastern India, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal. H. crassus is semiaquatic, common along rivers, reservoirs and marshes. In Sri Lanka the author found specimens in towns next to human settlement. H. crassus is found up to 460 m asl. In Sri Lanka both in the wet and the dry zone of the country.

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
H. crassus is active at night, looking for food. H. crassus can often be seen after heavy rains, when mating begins. The males call from watersides. The tadpoles are very aggressive towards other tadpoles. The author once placed two tadpoles of H. crassus together with tadpoles from several other species (Euphlyctis cyanophlytis, Kaloula taprobanica). After a few days, the other species had been eaten by the H. crassus larvae. One was seen killing a tadpole of K. taprobanica. It is quite similar to Hoplobatrachus species in Africa (Lötters pers. comm.).

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants
Long-distance pesticides, toxins, and pollutants

H. crassus was once confused with H. tigerinus (Kirtis.). It is unclear if H. tigerinus is really a Sri Lankan species.


Dutta, S.K. and Manamendra-Arachchi, K. (1996). The Amphibian Fauna of Sri Lanka. Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K. (2000). ''Know your frog.'' Sri Lanka Nature, 2(5), 4-16.

Written by Peter Janzen (pjanzen AT, dght
First submitted 2005-05-01
Edited by Tate Tunstall (2005-05-05)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2005 Hoplobatrachus crassus: Jerdon`s Bullfrog <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Feb 16, 2020.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2020. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 16 Feb 2020.

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