AmphibiaWeb - Centrolene condor


(Translations may not be accurate.)

Centrolene condor Cisneros-Heredia & Morales-Mite, 2008
Condor Glassfrog, Rana de Cristal del Cóndor
family: Centrolenidae
subfamily: Centroleninae
genus: Centrolene
Species Description: Cisneros-Heredia, D.F. & Morales-Mite, M.A. (2008) A new species of glassfrog from the elfin forests of the Cordillera del Condor, southeastern Ecuador (Anura: Centrolenidae). Herpetozoa 21 (1/2): 49-56.
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account Data Deficient (DD)
National Status None
Regional Status None
conservation needs Access Conservation Needs Assessment Report .


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Centrolene condor is a glass frog with a slender body that is indistinct from the head. Centrolene condor has a snout vent length of about 27.6 mm. The eyes are positioned anterolaterally at about 45 degrees from the midline. They have horizontal, dentigerous vomer processes and small, oval-shaped choanae. The tongue is elongated and resembles a spatulate shape, and the vocal slits are paired. The cloacal opening is located on the upper thighs and is directed posteriorly and there are a few warts below the opening. Centrolene condor also has a small humeral spine with an upper arm breadth that is about a third smaller than that of the lower arm. The subarticular tubercles are flat and rounded and there are many supernumerary tubercles spread all over the palm, which is granular. There is a large, elliptical palmar tubercle and an indistinct thenar tubercle. The legs are slender. There is a flat, large, and elliptical inner metatarsal tubercle and an outer metatarsal tubercle that is not quite distinguishable. Toe I has a slightly expanded disc, but all the other toes have discs that are rounded and truncate. There are no pointed projections on the discs present. Only some of the outer fingers and toes have melanophores (Cisneros-Heredia and Morales-Mite 2008).

Centrolene condor can be differentiated from all the other Centrolenes based on a couple of characteristics. It has vomerine teeth and a pointed snout when viewed from above but slopes downwards when viewed in profile. The nostrils are elevated slightly. Its tympanic annulus is indistinct and the tympanic membrane is similar to the skin surrounding it. The dorsal skin is covered with warts and spicules and the ventral skin is granular. There are iridophores on the top 2/3 of the parietal peritoneum. Males have humeral spines. Additionally, there is no webbing present between fingers I and II but is basal between fingers II and III. However, the e toes on the feet are webbed. The ulnar fold and the fringe on the edge of toe V are both enameled. There are Type I nuptial excrescences present and the second finger is longer than the first. The eye’s diameter is bigger than the width of the disc found on finger III (Cisneros-Heredia and Morales-Mite 2008).

In life, the dorsal side of Centrolene condor is bluish-green with dark and yellowish-white flecks. These flecks can also be seen on the arms and legs, which are light green. There is also a white-labial line and some yellow warts located at the corner of the mouth. This species has green bones and the color of the iris is cream-yellow. In preservative, the dorsal side is gray with a tinge of lavender and also has dark flecks. The iris is light gray with dark reticulation. There is a white labial line and warts at the corner of the mouth (Cisneros-Heredia and Morales-Mite 2008).

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Ecuador

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This species can be found in Cordillera del Condor, Ecuador. It is a mountain range that is parallel to the Cordillera Oriental. However, these two ranges are separated by the valley of the Zamora River. The coordinates and elevational range of Cordilllera del Condor are, respectively, 03º18’25”S, 78º23’36”W and between 1750 – 1850 m (Cisneros-Heredia and Morales-Mite 2008).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The holotype of Centrolene condor was found during the night in vegetation that was hanging very close over water (Cisneros-Heredia and Morales-Mite 2008). Males carry out their advertisement calls from the upper side of leaves and they are believed to breed in streams (Cisneros-Heredia and Angulo 2009).

Trends and Threats
The development of highways, mining, and the expansion of agriculture and humans onto the land have all led to an increase in deforestation, putting Centrolene condor’s habitat at greater risk (Cisneros-Heredia and Angulo 2009).

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Intensified agriculture or grazing


Cisneros-Heredia, D. F., Morales-Mite, M.A. 2008. A New Species of Glassfrog from Elfin Forest of the Cordillera Del Condor, Southeastern Ecuador. Herpetozoa 21: 49-56.

Cisneros-Heredia, D., Angulo, A. 2009. Centrolene condor. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Downloaded on 02 June 2013.

Originally submitted by: Jenny Chang (first posted 2013-06-14)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2013-06-17)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2013 Centrolene condor: Condor Glassfrog <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jul 21, 2024.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2024. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 21 Jul 2024.

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