This species is known only from the type locality, Trocha Union Km 6, situated in the Kosñipata Valley, District of Paucartambo, Province of Paucartambo (Chaparro et al. 2007), and from the Aednoshiari Native Community, Urubamba River Basin, La Convención Province (Chávez et al. 2013), both in Cusco Region, Peru. It occurs between 2,695-2,800 m asl. The two known localities are separated by 235 km (airline distance). It could occur in other localities between Urubamba River Basin and Kosñipata Valley (Chávez et al. 2013). Records have been made further south in Santo Domingo, but these are likely to belong to another species and are excluded from this assessment (A. Catenazzi pers. comm. April 2017). It occurs at two threat-defined locations and its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 19,792 km2.
Habitat and Ecology
The species inhabits montane cloud forests. Individuals are found throughout the year (A. Catenazzi pers. comm. April 2017). It is nocturnal and arboreal and have been found on leaves and branches of arboreal ferns (Cyathea), 30 cm–2 m above the ground. Most individuals have been found in areas without standing water (Chaparro et al. 2007). It is presumed to breed by direct development.
The population is believed to be stable and the species is commonly encountered in suitable habitat within its known range.
The species shows resilience to disturbance as it is found in the buffer zone of Manu National Park along roads. In 2013, this species was collected from Kosñipata Valley near Manu National Park; among four individuals tested, two were infected by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, three by Ranavirus, and two were co-infected (Warne et al. 2016). However, contrary to other native toad species, this species population did not decline during Bd outbreaks known to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s.
The areas surrounding the Aednoshiari Native Community, where this species is found, are strongly affected by deforestation which are used for agriculture and wood exploitation (Chávez et al. 2013).
The species' type locality is within the limits of the Manu Biosphere Reserve (Chaparro et al. 2007) and is likely to also occur in the Sanctuario Nacional Megantoni.
More information is needed on this species' distribution, population status, ecology, and threats. Additional field work efforts are necessary to in other locations between Urubamba River Basin and Kosñipata Valley to determine if the species is more widespread. There is a need for monitoring the population status of this species given the threat of habitat loss as a result of agriculture and logging in parts of its range.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution, because it is commonly encountered and has a stable population, seems to be resilient to habitat disturbance, and has not been affected by chytridiomycosis outbreaks during the last 30 years.
Rhinella manu can be distinguished from all known Rhinella by a unique combination of external and osteological characters as well as by molecular data (Chaparro et al. 2007).
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2017. Rhinella manu. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T135882A516206. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T135882A516206.en .Downloaded on 15 November 2018