This species is known from humid premontane slopes of the Atlantic versant of the Cordillera de Talamanca in south-eastern Costa Rica and adjacent north-eastern Panama, from 1,051-2,040m asl (Savage 2002; Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007). It seems likley that the species is widespread in appropriate habitats along the Atlantic slopes in areas between Turriabla, Cartago, Costa Rica and Cerro Pata de Macho, Bocas del Toro, Panama (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007).
Habitat and Ecology
It is a diurnal, species of deep forest (Savage 2002), that inhabits the deep leaf-litter of primary, or mature secondary forest with mature canopies, cloudforest or highland oak forest (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007). It is possible that this species undergoes direct development, however this requires further investigations (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007).
Vaughn and Mendelson (2007), mention that this is generally a rare toad with a few individuals being recorded along trails. However it is reported to be generally common in Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica, by other researchers (Gerado Chaves pers. comm. 2007). It has been collected only a few times. Small aggregations of between two end eight animals, a few metres apart, have been observed (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007).
There are no known threats to this species; the Costa Rican part of the species range is almost all within well protected areas.
Although there are no specific conservation measures in place this species has been recorded from Parque Internacional La Amistad (Panama), and Parque Nacional Tapantí and Parque Nacional Rincón de la Vieja (Costa Rica).
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern since, although its Extent of Occurrence is probably less than 5,000 km2, it occurs in an area of extensive, unfragmented, suitable habitat which is protected by several national parks and appears not to be under significant threat, it has a presumed large population, and it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Jaramillo, C., Fuenmayor, Q., Young, B.E., Kubicki, B. & Bolaños, F. 2008. Incilius epioticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T54803A11203518. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T54803A11203518.en .Downloaded on 20 November 2018