Species Description: Caramaschi U, Orrico VGD, Faivovitch J, Dias IR, Sole M. 2013 A new species of Allophryne (Anura: Allophryidae)from the Atlantic rain forest biome of Eastern Brazil. Herpetologica 69: 480-491.
Allophryne relicta is differentiated from A. ruthveni by its loftier head, which is about 35% of the snout vent length compared to 30% in A. ruthveni. There is also a difference in the eyes and the dorsum. In A. relicta there are larger eyes and a dorsum that has many dispersed spots and covered by fewer tubercles. In comparison the A. ruthveni has many tubercles that contain keratinized spikes and an absence of black spots. Allophryne relicta can also be distinguished because it has longer legs, ulnar tubercles, and longer calls with a lower dominant frequency, more pulses per note, and a larger pulse repetition rate when compared to A. ruthveni. Allophryne relicta can be distinguished from A. resplendens in many ways. Allophryne relicta has bigger eyes, ulnar tubercles (which A. resplendens does not have), and a smaller tympanum. There is also less advanced webbing on the feet of the A. relicta than on the A. resplendens. Additionally, there is a prominent difference in coloration with the A. relicta having cream to light brown dorsal skin with dark brown spots compared to the dark brown to black dorsal skin with right large and glossy yellow spots in A. resplendens. Allophryne relicta can also be differentiated from A. ruthveni and A. resplendens because the latter two have dark bronze irises with black reticulations, which are vastly different from the red-orange eyes with a black transversal stripe on the iris that the A. relicta has (Caramaschi et al. 2013).
In life, the dorsum is a cream to yellow color with a few dark brown spots. Some these spots are minute and scattered and others are more densely scattered in an hourglass shape. The flanks of the species are dark brown to gray and have yellow spots, which are irregular. The venter is a dirty white color. The eyes are clearly distinguishable being a red-orange color with the iris containing a black transversal stripe (Caramaschi et al. 2013).
When preserved, the dorsum of A. relicta is a cream color with a darker brown area located beginning in the interorbital region and lasting to the urostyle region on each side of its body. From this dark area there are irregular dark brown stripes that extend out as well as spots. There are also dark brown spots on the head that extend throughout the body and increase in size near the posterior end of the body. The flank of the frog is a dark brown color and has irregular silver spots, which are scattered. Anteriorly, the arms are dark brown and, posteriorly, are white. The forearms are described as a cream color and contain asymmetrical dark brown spots. The legs are found to have dark brown spots on the dorsum and are bronze colors containing white spots on the posterior surfaces of the thighs and the knee. Allophryne relicta also has a white gular region and a clear gray venter. The chest has asymmetrical small white spots as well and a belly with white tubercles. The eyes of the preserved specimen are a silver color with a transversal black stripe on the iris.
There may be a slight variation in the dorsal color patterns between frogs in this species (Caramaschi et al. 2013).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The males in the species call from the shrubby vegetation usually on the bank of a stream. Calls recorded at temperatures between 23.0 and 23.8 degrees celcius consisted of multiple pulsed note of 0.509 +/- 0.029 seconds in length with notes composed of 28.58 +/- 1.84 pulses. The frequencies of the calls were 3828 +/- 82.28 Hz. Their call notes were found to have emission rates of 34.46 notes/min and pulse emission rates of 56.13 +/- 1.25 seconds (Caramaschi et al. 2013).
Trends and Threats
The species was discovered in 2013 during environmental licensing surveys for planned construction of a port complex and a railway. These projects will lead to major habitat modifications in this region of southern Bahia. The authors of the species description urged the preservation of the type locality (Caramaschi et al. 2013).
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Based on maximum parsimony of 12S and 16S trimmed for tRNA’s phenylalanine and valine sequences there is evidence for the placement of A. relicta as a sister taxon to the clade formed by A. ruthveni and A. resplendens (Caramaschi et al. 2013).
The species epithet “relicta” is a Latin adjective meaning “abandoned” or “forsaken” in reference to the fact that the area it was found, Hileia Bahiana of the Atlantic rain forest, use to be connected to the Amazon rain forest and, as a relic, is still biologically similar (Caramaschi et al. 2013).
Caramaschi, U., Orrico, V.G.D., Faivovich, J., Dias, I.R., Sole, M. (2013). ''A New Species of Allophryne (Anura: Allophrynidae) from the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome of Eastern Brazil.'' Herpetologica , 69(4), 480-91.
Written by Vanikaa Keswani (vakeswani AT dons.usfca.edu), University of San Francisco
First submitted 2017-06-30
Edited by Ann T. Chang (2017-06-30)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2017 Allophryne relicta <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/8097> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Dec 13, 2018.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2018. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 13 Dec 2018.
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