This species is only known from one threat-defined location: its type locality (Quebrada Infiernillo) and a nearby site (Quebrada Lisboa), on the western slopes of the Altos de Cantillana mountains in central Chile, at 729-850 m asl (Charrier et al., 2015). The type locality is located within San Juan de Piche Nature Sanctuary and, while Charrier et al. (2015) state that the Quebrada Lisboa locality is also within this reserve, the boundaries of the reserve are uncertain so this is not currently confirmed. The extent of this species' range is also unknown and it is uncertain whether this species occurs throughout San Juan de Piche reserve, although it could be more widely distributed. Based on this information, it has an extent of occurrence of 21 km2 and an area of occupancy of 20 km2.
Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits mixed old grown forest of Nothofagus macrocarpa, with type specimens collected from the underside of rocks underwater (Charrier et al. 2015). Individuals were also found under a thick layer of litter and under logs close to a stream, and observed at night walking along the stream of Quebrada Lisboa (Charrier et al. 2015).
Thirteen individuals were found during one sampling expedition, but in others not a single individual was observed probably due to climatic conditions. The population status is unknown.
It is found in a Nothofagus macrocarpa relict forest, which is potentially threatened by gold mining activities and forest fires which can be a problem in the summer (Charrier et al. 2015). The surrounding area in the Altos de Cantillana mountains, where Quebrada Infiernillo is located, is also highly impacted by agriculture, livestock and exotic tree plantations (Charrier et al. 2015).
This species occurs in the private reserve San Juan de Piche Nature Sanctuary (Charrier et al. 2015), which is believed to provide protection for 51-60% of the population.
Red List Status
Critically Endangered (CR)
Listed as Critically Endangered because its extent of occurrence is 21 km2, area of occupancy is 20 km2, and the species occurs at a single location that is affected by wildfires and mining activities. These threats are leading to a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2015. Alsodes cantillanensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T76338143A76338146. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T76338143A76338146.en .Downloaded on 23 January 2019