This species is known from a single threat-defined location on Mount Manengouba in Cameroon (Blackburn 2008) where it occurs from 2,000 to 2,200 m asl, which is the peak of the mountain (Gonwouo pers. comm. May 2012). The two known localities are less than 3 km apart and it is therefore likely that this species is restricted to less than 10 km² on the topmost elevations of Mount Manengouba (Blackburn 2008). Based on a coarse spatial representation of its range (see map), its extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) are both estimated to be 11 km², but due to the species' uneven distribution across its range and the availability of suitable habitat, this number is likely to be an overestimate.
Habitat and Ecology
This species was found under rocks and in leaf litter near shallow, sandy streams in montane forest (Blackburn 2008).
Surveys have recorded an individual as recently as January 2011 (M. Hirschfeld pers. comm. June 2012) and the species is locally abundant, but due to numerous and severe threats its population is likely to be decreasing.
Grazing by cattle, goats and horses near the summit of Mount Manengouba and trampling by livestock in the forest are threats to this species and its habitat (Blackburn 2008). It is also threatened by the removal of wood by local people for firewood and building materials. Deforestation on Mount Manengouba also occurs due to the unsustainable collection of bark from Prunus africanus—a high-elevation tree endemic to the Cameroon highlands—by the method of tree ringing. The tree's bark is used in small amounts for medicinal purposes by local people. However, it is also sold to pharmaceutical companies in large amounts, in which case all the bark is removed from the individual trees, resulting in their death. The consequence of the latter practice changes the microclimate which the species requires (Gonwouo pers. comm. May 2012). Furthermore, as with other high-elevation species, its habitat may be affected by climate change (Gonwouo pers. comm. May 2012), but this requires further research.
This species does not occur in any protected areas. The protected area network in western Cameroon urgently needs to be expanded to include the remaining montane forest habitats, particularly those on Mount Manengouba, which has been proposed as a protected area (N. Gonwouo pers. comm. May 2012). On Mount Manengouba, the harvesting of Prunus africanus should be sustainably managed, including education of the local people (N. Gonwouo pers. comm. May 2012). Because the species occurs only in one location and the threats are severe, an ex-situ breeding programme is recommended. More information is needed on the population status, as is the monitoring of both species and habitat trends.
Red List Status
Critically Endangered (CR)
This species is listed as Critically Endangered because the species' estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) are only 11 km² and the entire population is endemic to a single location at which the quality and extent of its habitat is declining.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2015. Cardioglossa manengouba. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T16854228A16854231. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T16854228A16854231.en .Downloaded on 10 December 2018