This very widespread species in forested regions occurs between 200–1,800 m Asl (Orlov et al. 2002, Rowley et al. 2012) and subpopulations have been recorded (as R. reinwardtii prior to 2006) in northern Thailand (Ohler and Delorme 2006), southern China (Fei 1999), northern to southern Viet Nam (Fei 1999, Orlov et al. 2001, Orlov et al. 2002, Ziegler 2002, Ohler and Delorme 2006, Bain et al. 2007, Luu et al. 2014), and northern to central-eastern Lao PDR (Fei 1999, Stuart 1999, Ohler and Delorme 2006).
Habitat and Ecology
This species is associated with closed-canopy primary and secondary evergreen forest, and is most commonly observed in lowland areas away from slopes (Ohler and Delorme 2006). Reproduction occurs in April-July, when adults descend from the canopy to congregate around pools, building foam nests on overhanging vegetation (Ohler and Delorme 2006, J. Rowley unpubl. data.). The species has been recorded from forest edges adjacent to villages (Ohler and Delorme 2006), and breeding in a pool on a muddy path in disturbed forest (J. Rowley unpubl. data) suggesting some level of tolerance to disturbance, however forest from the vast majority of its predicted range has been cleared for agriculture, and is undergoing a continual declines (Ohler and Delorme 2006, Rowley et al. 2010, Sodhi et al. 2010).
In most places, subpopulations of this species do not appear to be large, however groups of up to 10 males have been observed congregating at breeding sites (Ohler and Delorme 2006). Specimens are relatively uncommon in museum collections, which is likely at least in part due to the difficulty in detecting the arboreal species outside of breeding events (Ohler and Delorme 2006). This species' population is considered extremely fragmented; it is likely that a very small portion of its predicted range consists of suitable habitat. Such habitat is sparsely distributed, and the majority occurs on terrain unsuitable for breeding (steep slopes where pools do not easily form) (Ohler and Delorme 2006). Given the ongoing nature of forest loss throughout the species' range (Rowley et al. 2010, Sodhi et al. 2010), population declines are almost certainly continuing (Ohler and Delorme 2006).
The removal of forests for expanding agriculture is ongoing in this species' range (Rowley et al. 2010, Sodhi et al. 2010) and, having likely reduced a considerably large amount of its habitat, constitutes the main threat to its persistence (Ohler and Delorme 2006). Having been recorded at close proximity to human settlements (Ohler and Delorme 2006), this species is also presumably affected to some degree by the combination of associated anthropogenic disturbances such as residential development, transportation, pollution of breeding pools and logging. The species is collected for the international pet trade, however whether it is harvested at such a rate that this can be considered a threat is not known.
This species is known from a number of protected areas including Nam Lan Conservation Area (Ohler and Delorme 2006), Doi Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary (Stuart 1999: as Rhacophorus reinwardtii), Ben En National Park (Ohler and Delorme 2006), and Thuong Tien Nature Reserve (Luu et al. 2014). The species' predicted range also includes parts of many other protected areas in all five countries where it is known or expected to occur.
Probably the most important step towards ensuring this species' survival is to determine how much of its range, population, and breeding sites is represented by protected areas. Additional research into its range, abundance, threats, and potential harvest would also inform conservation decisions.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
We follow Ohler and Delorme (2006) in separating this species from Rhacophorus reinwardtii. Some populations of this species have previously been treated as Rhacophorus nigropalmatus.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2017. Rhacophorus kio. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T135986A113960365. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T135986A113960365.en .Downloaded on 22 January 2019