Strongylopus kitumbeine
family: Pyxicephalidae
subfamily: Cacosterninae
Species Description: Channing and Davenport 2002 Afr J Herpetol 51:137
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Vulnerable (VU)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Tanzania, United Republic of


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known only from Mount Kitumbeine, an extinct volcano in northern Tanzania, from 2,180-2,800 m asl. Its range is likely to be very restricted, since most other sites where it could occur have already been surveyed without success. However, it is possible that it might be found on the poorly surveyed peaks of Monduli, Longido and Gelai.

Habitat and Ecology

It has been found along semi-permanent and seasonal streams, and around temporary pools in montane Juniperus forest, and tussock montane grassland. It is able to survive in heavily disturbed forest. It breeds in open water by larval development (K. Howell pers. comm. June 2012). Males have been heard calling in April.


It is apparently common in its small range and was seen as recently as 2012 (K. Howell pers. comm. June 2012). Its population is not considered to be severely fragmented.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The habitats on Mount Kitumbeine are threatened by livestock grazing and fire. Dry spells could mean that the Masai may use the area occupied by this species for their livestock grazing, increasing the threat level to this species (J. Vonesh, C. Msuya and K. Howell pers. comm. June 2012). Small-holder agriculture activities have been recorded at lower elevations; however, they do not impact habitats at the elevations where this species is found (C. Msuya pers. comm. June 2012).

Conservation Actions

It occurs in the Kitumbeine Forest Reserve; however, it requires improved management and enforcement (C. Msuya and K. Howell pers. comm. June 2012). More information is needed on this species' distribution, population status and natural history.


Red List Status

Vulnerable (VU)


Listed as Vulnerable because it is known from only a single threat-defined location based on the possibility of livestock grazing moving into the area occupied by this species in Mount Kitumbeine in dry years.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2013. Strongylopus kitumbeine. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T58769A17181622. .Downloaded on 20 January 2019


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