This species occurs in at least three areas of the island of Java, Indonesia, above 700 m asl. In West Java, it is found in Mount Gede Pagrango National Park, Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, Pasir Jambu in Bandung Regency and Lebak Regency in Banten Province, and in Mount Wilis in East Java. It was rediscovered in 1997 after a long absence of records. As of 2012, it is now also known from Mount Ungaran between 700–1,500 m asl (M. Munir pers. comm. May 2017). There are photograph records of tadpoles from Mount Merapi National Park, however further confirmation is required to verify the identity of the subpopulation (M. Munir pers. comm. May 2017) and they have not be mapped in the species' distribution. It is may be found in other areas of montane forest on Java, but further surveys are required (M. Munir pers. comm. May 2017).
Habitat and Ecology
This species lives in undisturbed highland forest and on Mount Ungaran it has been recorded in coffee plantations, which have adequate canopy cover from the forest. It breeds in tree holes by larval development.
It is a rare species, and fewer than 10 specimens are known. It was rediscovered in 1997 after a long absence of records. Surveys in West Java have only recorded a small number of individuals or failed to record it (Mumpuni 2002, Radiansyah et al. 2003, Kusrini et al. 2007). Furthermore, during a two week survey between 2012-2013 on Mount Ungaran, only one or two individuals were recorded (M. Munir pers. comm. May 2017). Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
The major threat to this species is the loss of its forest habitat due to smallholder farming from coffee, tea and rice plantations and subsistence wood collection.
This species occurs in Halimun and Gunung Gede Pangrango National Parks.
Further habitat protection is required.
Red List Status
Listed as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution and presumed large population.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Nyctixalus margaritifer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T58804A114112563. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T58804A114112563.en .Downloaded on 19 January 2019