AMPHIBIAWEB
Tomopterna tandyi
Tandy's sand frog
family: Pyxicephalidae
subfamily: Cacosterninae

© 2011 Thomas Eimermacher (1 of 2)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
CITES
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Angola, Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, United Republic of

 

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

   

From the Encyclopedia of Life account:

Etymology

Tomopterna tandyi was named for Mills Tandy, who was the first person to identify a population of tetraploid Tomopterna (Channing and Bogart, 1996).


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Summary

Tomopterna tandyi is a tetraploid species found throughout South Africa, Lesotho, Botswana, and Namibia. Species of this genus have a prominent inner metatarsal tubercle used for burrowing with the hind limbs. Most species within the genus are highly cryptic and can only be accurately identified with advertisement call or molecular data.

This cryptic, tetraploid species is difficult to distinguish from T. cryptotis (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Authors: Channing, A.; Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Distribution

This species is distributed throughout South Africa, Lesotho, Botswana, Namibia and southwestern Angola.


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Morphology

The dorsum and ventrum are mostly smooth, except for a granular area around the vent. There is continuous infra-tympanic membrane. Subarticular tubercles are single and well-developed. Palmar tubercles are flattened. The foot is half the snout-vent length, and there are rounded subarticular tubercles. A robust inner metatarsal tubercle is present, but this species lacks both an outer metatarsal and tarsal tubercle. Three phalanges are free of webbing on the fourth toe. The dorsum has grey or olive patches on a lighter background, reddish-brown warts, and a dark interorbital bar. Coloration is retained in preservation (Channing and Bogart, 1996).


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Size

The male holotype measured 38 mm in snout-vent length (Channing and Bogart, 1996).


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Habitat and Ecology

T. tandyi inhabits loose, sandy soils. It occurs along small streams, pans and temporary rain pools, and is commonly associated with farm dams. It thrives in both arid and more mesic areas where annual rainfall is 50–750 mm. Records are known from the Nama Karoo, Grassland and Savanna biomes (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Tomopterna tandyi is able to live in very dry areas by burrowing into soil during the dry seasons, similar to all species of this genus.


Authors: Channing, A.; Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Advertisement Call

A full description and illustration of a typical advertisement call of Tomopterna tandyi can be found in Channing and Bogart, 1996.

Males call from exposed positions at the edge of newly formed pools, but also from beneath vegetation in flooded areas (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Authors: Channing, A.; Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Reproduction

Individuals emerge from burrows at the start of the rainy season to mate. Eggs are laid in pools formed by rainfall in which the tadpoles will develop until metamorphosis (Channing and Bogart, 1996).


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Tadpole morphology

Tadpoles vary in colour according to the turbidity of the water in which they are found (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Channing, A.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Evolution

Tomopterna tandyi is a tetraploid species, which was result of a hybridization event between T. cryptotis and T. delalandii (Channing and Bogart, 1996).


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status

T. tandyi appears to be a widespread and common species that does not require conservation action (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Channing, A.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/