AMPHIBIAWEB
Tomopterna krugerensis
Knocking sand frog
family: Pyxicephalidae
subfamily: Cacosterninae

© 2011 Martin Pickersgill (1 of 2)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
CITES
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland

 

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

   

From the Encyclopedia of Life account:

Etymology

Tomopterna krugerensis is named for Kruger Park where it was first desribed (Passmore and Caruthers, 1975).


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Summary

Tomopterna krugerensis has a prominent inner metatarsal tubercle used for burrowing with the hind limbs, which is found in all species of this genus. This species can identified by the double subarticular tubercles on the manual digits.


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Distribution

This species ranges from southwestern Angola, through northern Namibia and Botswana, to southern Zimbabwe, northern South Africa, Swaziland, and southern Mozambique.


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Morphology

Body is stout body, and head is much broader than long. Internarial distance is greater than the distance from the anterior corner of the eye to the nostril. Tympanum is most often indistinct, but when visible it is oval. There is a continuous infratympanic glandular ridge, wider posteriorly, beginning from below posterior third of eye and terminating at anterior face of forearm. Relative finger lengths are as follows: 3>1>2>4. Two palmar tubercles are flattened. Two subarticular tubercles are prominent on each finger; the proximal tubercles are always double (divided longitudinally) on digit I, frequently on digit II, rarely on digit III, and never on digit IV. Relative toe lengths are as follows: 4>3>2=5>1. A robust inner metatarsal tubercle is present. The outer metatarsal and tarsal tubercle are absent. Webbing is rudimentary with 3.5 phalanges free of weebing on toe IV. Dorsum is smooth in alcohol, but glandular in life. Ventrum is smooth, but granular around vent. Males have a dark gular region (Passmore and Caruthers, 1975).


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Size

Males snout-vent lengths range from 38 to 45 mm, and females range from 41 to 46 mm (Passmore and Caruthers, 1975).


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Diagnostic Description

This species can be definitively distinguished from other Tomopterna species by the double subarticular tubercles present on finger I that are not present in any other described species.


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Habitat and Ecology

T. krugerensis inhabits the Savanna Biome at altitudes ranging from sea level to 1500 m, in areas with annual rainfall of 500–>1000 mm. It seems to prefer sandy soils and breeds in temporary water bodies such as large and small pans, vleis, and floodplains (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).

Like all species in this genus, Tomopterna krugerensis is able to live in very dry areas by burrowing into sandy soil during the dry season.


Authors: Channing, A.; Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Advertisement Call

A full description and illustration of a typical advertisement call of Tomopterna krugerensis can be found in Passmore and Caruthers, 1975.


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Reproduction

Individuals emerge from burrows at the start of the rainy season to mate. Approximately 5,000 eggs are laid at a time in temporary pools of rainwater. Eggs measure 1.2 mm in diameter, and each is individually enclosed in a jelly envelope 3 mm in diameter. The jelly capsule is spherical and fairly flaccid (Passmore and Caruthers, 1975).


Author: Larson, Joanna
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Phylogenetics

This species was found to be sister to T. marmorata in analyses by Dawood and Uqubay (2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status

This widespread species is abundant and not in need of conservation action (Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Channing, A.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/