This Sumatran species was formerly known only from Kerinci, however now it is known to have a wide distribution, from north-western to south-western Sumatra. It has been recorded from the western side of Toba Lake and from Sibayak Mountain in North Sumatra Province (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workhop 2017, E. Smith pers. comm.); Gunung Singgalang in West Sumatra Province (Jantra 2010); Gunung Tujuh and Renah Kayu Embun, and Merangin within Kerinci Seblat National Park in Jambi Province (Kurniati 2008, 2009, Indonesia Red List Assessment Workhop 2017); Bukit Kaba, Rejang Lebong in Bengkulu Province (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workhop 2017); and Gunung Dempo in South Sumatra Province (E. Smith pers comm.). It occurs above 700 m asl. It is likely to occur more widely, particularly if surveys are conducted at lower montane regions throughout Lake Toba down to Gunung Dempo (H. Kurniati pers. comm. 2017), and possibly on the island of Borneo (Teynie et al. 2010).
Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits riparian habitats and open areas, including grasslands, swamps and pools occurring at low mountain slopes (Kurniati 2008). This frog is not a forest species, as it is usually common in open areas, including swamps and shallow temporary pools (H. Kurniati pers. comm. 2017). It is likely to breed in slow-flowing streams. Individuals of this species have diverse colour variations (E. Smith pers. comm.).
It is locally common in open areas, swamps and temporary pools (H. Kurniati pers. comm.). There is no further information on its population size and trends, however due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
The main threat to this species is habitat loss taking place on lower montane slopes as a result of smallholder farming and small-scale subsistence collection of wood.
This species occurs in several protected areas in Sumatra, including Gunung Singgalang Nature Reserve, Kerinci Seblat National Park, Gunung Dempo Nature Reserve, and Bukit Kaba Recreation Park.
Effective protection of suitable habitat is required.
Further research on this species' distribution, population size and trends is recommended.
Red List Status
Data Deficient (DD)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
Individuals of this species have diverse color variations, and therefore many researchers identify this frog as different species; however molecular analyses show they all belong to a single species (E. Smith pers. comm.).
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Rhacophorus modestus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T59004A97421492. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T59004A97421492.en .Downloaded on 19 January 2019