This species is currently known from between 78–1,660 m Asl in Northeast India (Sengupta et al. 2010), eastern Myanmar (Ahl 1930: as Chirixalus striatus), eastern Thailand (Cochran 1927, Taylor 1962), western (Stuart 2005) and southern (Teynié et al. 2004) Lao PDR, Cambodia (Stuart and Emmett 2006, Stuart et al. 2006), northern (Ohler et al. 2000) and south-central (Inger et al. 1999, Nguyen et al. 2009) Viet Nam, and northern Peninsular Malaysia (Leong and Lim 2003). These are unlikely to represent the actual limits of the species' range as similar habitat and elevations to those in its known localities occur in adjacent areas throughout southern China and Southeast Asia. Further surveys will probably uncover more localities for the species, therefore its range has been projected beyond known sites to include these areas of suitable habitat and its estimated EOO is 3,290,378 km2.
Habitat and Ecology
This species is associated with a wide variety of habitat types including evergreen (Stuart and Emmett 2006), mixed (Stuart 2005, Jodi Rowley unpubl. data), and deciduous forest (Stuart et al. 2006, Jodi Rowley unpubl. data), sometimes with a grassy understory (Stuart et al. 2006). The species has also been recorded from open grassy areas, and is often found adjacent to ponds, puddles or in swampy environments (Stuart 2005, Stuart et al. 2006, Jodi Rowley unpubl. data). Most, but not all observations of this species have occurred in habitat affected by anthropogenic disturbance including forest degraded by agriculture (Jodi Rowley unpubl. data) as well as trails and human encroachement (Stuart 2005). There are also records of the species in a logging camp (Taylor 1962) and in bamboo adjacent to a water-filled bomb crater during breeding season (Stuart et al. 2006). Such examples of degraded habitat use by this species likely indicate at least some level of tolerance to disturbance and habitat conversion (Thy Neang pers. comm. December 2015). Reproduction in this species occurs around the rainy season; gravid females have been observed adjacent to still water bodies at this time (Jodi Rowley unpubl. data). The species lays eggs in foam nests attached to the underside of leaves overhanging water (to which tadpoles presumably fall upon hatching) (Teynié et al. 2004). Females have been reported guarding nests during the day (Teynié et al. 2004).
This species' has been detected in a large number of surveys throughout its range (e.g. Cochran 1927, Ahl 1930, Taylor 1962, Inger et al. 1999, Ohler et al. 2000, Leong and Lim 2003, Teynié et al. 2004, Stuart 2005, Stuart and Emmett 2006, Stuart et al. 2006, Nguyen et al. 2009, Sengupta et al. 2010). Its population may be declining to some extent due to forest clearing for agricultural practices (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Sodhi et al. 2009, Meyfroidt et al. 2013), logging (Taylor 1962), and other anthropogenic disturbances (Stuart 2005, Stuart et al. 2006, Stuart and Emmett 2006) that are ongoing throughout parts of its range.
Forest loss is ongoing throughout much of this species' range, with natural forest being replaced with cleared agricultural land (Sodhi et al. 2009). Threats to the species' habitat within some of its known localities include the conversion of forest to grow cash crop plantations (e.g. rubber, coffee and tea) in the Central Highlands of Viet Nam (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Meyfroidt et al. 2013) and logging in Chonburi, Thailand (Taylor 1962). That this species has been observed living and probably breeding in highly disturbed areas (Taylor 1962, Stuart 2005, Stuart et al. 2006) may indicate that it is sufficiently adaptable to persist in at least some anthropogenically modified habitats, but the extent to which this is true is unclear and should be investigated.
This species is known from a number of protected areas including Ulu Muda Forest reserve in Peninsular Malaysia (Leong et al. 2003) as well as Tan Phu Forest and Kon Ka Kinh National Park in Viet Nam (Jodi Rowley pers. comm.). A large number of other protected areas are also included throughout its predicted range.
The first step towards ensuring this species' long-term persistence is addressing the lack of data.
Further research is needed on the size and trends of its population and its habitat use and requirements.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern as this species is widespread, with an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 3,290,378 km2.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2017. Chiromantis nongkhorensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T58791A55070422. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T58791A55070422.en .Downloaded on 16 November 2018