Chiromantis doriae (Boulenger, 1893)
Doria's Foam-nest Treefrog
|Species Description: Boulenger, G. A. 1893. Concluding report on the reptiles and batrachians obtained in Burma by Signor L. Fea dealing with the collection made in Pegu and the Karin Hills in 1887–88. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova. Serie 2, 13: 304–347.|
© 2009 Devin Edmonds (1 of 3)
Chiromantis doriae is a small, arboreal frog that has an average snout-vent length of 25 - 27 mm in males and 29 - 34 mm in females (AmphibiaChina 2022). The length of the head is slightly larger than the width of the head. The snout is pointed and the canthus rostralis is obtuse (Muansanga et al. 2021) and distinct (Riyanto and Kurniati 2014). The eyes protrude from the head and the pupils are horizontal (Muansanga et al. 2021). The distance between the eyes is slightly larger than the distance between the nostrils (AmphibiaChina 2022). The tympanum is distinct, round, and slightly concave. The tympanum is about half the diameter of the eye, and is slightly larger than the suction cup on the third finger. The tympanum sits closely to the eye (Riyanto and Kurniati 2014, Muansanga et al. 2021, AmphibiaChina 2022). The skin of the dorsum is smooth (Riyanto and Kurniati. 2014). The abdomen and the ventral surface of both thighs are covered in small, flat warts. The fore- and hind limbs are slim. The forearm and hand are slightly less than half the length of the body. The fingers on the hands are wide and flat. The fingers have discs and marginal grooves. The discs on the first and second finger are smaller than those on the third and fourth finger. The relative finger lengths are 3 > 4 > 2 > 1 (Muansanga et al. 2021). The fingers and toes are webbed. Webbing between the first and second finger is less developed than the webbing between the second, third, and fourth fingers (AmphibiaChina 2022). The length of the shin os slightly greater than, or equal to, half the length of the body. The toes have discs as well, but they are slightly smaller than those present on the fingers. The relative toe lengths are 4 > 5 > 3 > 2 > 1 (Muansanga et al. 2021).
A notable trait of Chiromantis doriae are the longitudinal stripes on its dorsum, which differentiates it from C. nongkhorensis that has no stripes or blotchy pattern. Another trait is that C. doriae has is multiple pulses per call whereas the species C. hansenae only has a single pulse per call (Aowphol et al. 2013).
Body color can range from a bright yellow to brown (AmphibiaChina 2022). The body has five longitudinal stripes that are brown or dark brown on the dorsum along with the presence of a dark postorbital stripe (Riyanto and Kurniati. 2014). The stripes can appear continuous or irregular. The back of the limbs are a light purple and can have black horizontal stripes. The base of the hind legs and the ventral surface of the throat can range from light yellow to white. The lower lip can have small dark spots. The ventral surface of the hind legs is red (AmphibiaChina 2022).
Males have a small nuptial pad on the first finger. Males also tend to have more vibrant coloration (AmphibiaChina 2022).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Chiromantis doriae has a call that has an average length of 215.47 ms. It has multiple pulses per call, on average 3 - 6 pulses per call. The frequency at which these calls occur are 4.0 - 4.5 kHz on average (Aowphol et al. 2013). The call on average contains around six discrete notes, but can range from two to fourteen notes per call (Yang et al. 2019).
There is a stripe that runs from the snout, to the eye, to the side of the body in tadpoles. The first half of the tail is lightly colored with fine stripes and the second half of the tail is black with no patterning (AmphibiaChina 2022).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Chiromantis doriae presents an interesting phylogenetic case, as C. doriae was originally referred to as Chirixalus doriae. Today these names are used synonymous with each other (Frost et al. 2006).
In 2006, Frost et al. combined previous anatomical evidence with DNA sequences from mitochondrial transcription unit H1, which includes 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA and tRNA genes, and several nuclear genes including histone H3, tyrosinase, ribosomal subunit 28S, and rhodopsin. The study used parsimony analysis under direct optimization to conclude the positioning of C. doriae. This resulted in a paraphyly between Chirixalus doriae and the species that was then known as Chirixalus vittatus (now Feihyla vittatus) with respect to the Chiromantis group. The name change from Chirixalus doriae to Chiromantis doriae was done in order to correct the paraphyletic nature of the Chirixalus group (Frost et al. 2006). A later Bayesian study of combined 12S and 16S mtDNA and t-RNA for Valine nDNA found that C. doriae is sister to the clade composed of C. rufensens and C. xerampelina (Li et al. 2009).
ETYMOLOGY (Origin or explanation of scientific name):
The species epithet, “doriae” is in reference to Giacomo Doria, an Italian zoologist (Beolens et al. 2013).
AmphibiaChina (2022). "Chirixalus doriae." The database of Chinese amphibians. Electronic Database accessible at http://www.amphibiachina.org/. Kunming Institute of Zoology (CAS), Kunming, Yunnan, China. Accessed in August 2022. [link]
Aowphol, A., Rujirawan, A., Taksintum, W., Arsirapot, S., Mcleod, D.S. (2013). "Re-evaluating the taxonomic status of Chiromantis in Thailand using multiple lines of evidence (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae)." Zootaxa, 3702(2). [link]
Beolens, B., Watkins, M., Grayson, M. (2013). The Eponym Dictionary of Amphibians. Pelagic Publishing
Chou, W., Shi, H., Y, D., Lu, S., van Dijk, P.P., Ohler, A., Dutta S., Borah, M.M. (2004). "Chiromantis doriae (errata version published in 2018)." The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T58787A136556596. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T58787A11828804.en. Accessed in August 2022. [link]
Frost, D. R., Grant, T., Faivovich, J., Bain, R. H., Haas, A., Haddad, C. F. B., de Sá, R. O., Channing, A., Wilkinson, M., Donnellan, S. C., Raxworthy, C. J., Campbell, J. A., Blotto, B. L., Moler, P., Drewes, R. C., Nussbaum, R. A., Lynch, J. D., Green D. M., Wheeler, W. C. (2006). "The amphibian tree of life." Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 297, 1-370. [link]
Frost, D.R. (2020). "Chirixalus doriae Boulenger, 1893." Amphibian Species of the World 6.1 an Online Reference. https://amphibiansoftheworld.amnh.org/Amphibia/Anura/Rhacophoridae/Rhacophorinae/Chirixalus/Chirixalus-doriae. Accessed in August 2022 [link]
Li, J.T., Che, J., Murphy, R.W., Zhao, H., Zhao, E.M., Rao, D.Q. Zhang, Y.P. (2009). ''New insights to the molecular phylogenetics and generic assessment in the Rhacophoridae (Amphibia: Anura) based on five nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, with comments on the evolution of reproduction.'' Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 53(2), 509-522. [link]
Muansanga, L., Duhzuali, L., Biakzuala, L., Mathipi, V., Sailo, S., Lalremsanga, H. T. (2021). "Rediscovery of Doria’s Foam-nesting Treefrog, Chirixalus doriae Boulenger 1893 (Anura: Rhacophoridae), from India." Reptiles and Amphibians, 28(1), 79-81.
Riyanto, A., Kurniati, H. (2014). "Three new species of Chiromantis Peters 1854 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Indonesia ." Russian Journal of Herpetology, 21(1), 65-73.
Yang, Y., Zhu, B., Wang, J., Brauth, S.E., Tang, Y., Cui, J. (2019). "A test of the matched filter hypothesis in two sympatric frogs, Chiromantis doriae and Feihyla vittata." Bioacoustics, 28(5), 488-502. [link]
Originally submitted by: Sarah Laurino (2022-09-20)
Description by: Sarah Laurino (updated 2022-09-20)
Distribution by: Sarah Laurino (updated 2022-09-20)
Life history by: Sarah Laurino (updated 2022-09-20)
Larva by: Sarah Laurino (updated 2022-09-20)
Trends and threats by: Sarah Laurino (updated 2022-09-20)
Comments by: Sarah Laurino (updated 2022-09-20)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2022-09-20)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Chiromantis doriae: Doria's Foam-nest Treefrog <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/4366> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Feb 7, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 7 Feb 2023.
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