AMPHIBIAWEB
Phrynobatrachus manengoubensis
family: Phrynobatrachidae

© 2011 Vaclav Gvozdik (1 of 2)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Data Deficient (DD)
CITES
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Cameroon

 

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

   

From the Encyclopedia of Life account:

Summary

Phrynobatrachus manengoubensis is a miniature (snout–vent length < 19 mm) species of puddle frog from Mt Manengouba, Cameroon. Members of this genus are identified by the presence of a midtarsal tubercle, elongate inner metatarsal tubercle, and outer metatarsal tubercle. Phrynobatrachus manengoubensis exhibits a barely visible tympanum, absent or rudimentary webbing, and small digital discs. Breeding males have a black throat.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Etymology

The name refers to the type locality, Mt Manengouba, Cameroon.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Taxonomic Notes

Additional specimens of P. werneri are needed for molecular and morphological comparison to determine if P. manengoubensis should be synonymized with this species or multiple species are currently identified as P. werneri (Zimkus, 2009). Amiet (2004) believes that this species is probably a synonym of P. werneri.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Distribution

It is known only from the Crater Lake on Mount Manenguba, in western Cameroon (Amiet, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Morphology

A median papilla is present on the tongue. The head is as long as broad. The snout is somewhat pointed, longer than the diameter of eye and protruding beyond the lower jaw. The nostril is equidistant from the eye and the tip of snout. The Interorbital space is 1.5 times broader than the upper eyelid. The tympanum is barely visible, measuring half of diameter of eye. Small but distinct discs are present on the fingers. Manual digit I is shorter than II, and II does not reach the level of the 4th. Toes are rather long, with a simple rudiment of skin at their base (4 phalanges free of webbing on toe IV). Toes exhibit well-developed discs. Small, projecting sub-articular tubercles are present. An elongate inner metatarsal tubercle, round outer metatarsal tubercle, and round tarsal tubercle are present. The length of the inner metatarsal tubercle is that toe I less its disc. Toe III longer than V. The tibio-tarsal articulation reaches the anterior border of the eye when the hind limb is folded back. The heels overlap slightly when one places the hind limbs at a right angle on the body. The tibia is 3.5 times longer than broad; its length equal to that of the foot without the tarsus and is contained 2.25 times in the snout-vent length. Skin is smooth on all the parts of the body, including the limbs. A strong fold of the skin, under the throat, skirts each branch of the jaw inferiorly and extends up to the insertion of the forelimbs.

Dorsum is gray-blackish, slightly more yellowish on the limbs. A white or grey dorsal band equal to the width of the superior eyelid is present from the snout to the vent. Two additional light bands may be present, the first traveling from the posterior angle of eye up to the insertion of the forelimb and continuing down the arm, and the second over the femur and the tibia. Yet another line, parallel to the one on the femur and tibia, is on the posterior face of the thighs. Faint transversal bars are visible on the hind limbs. Sides are marbled with small, dark spots. The ventral sides of the hind limbs are uniformly yellowish with some fine brown-reddish punctuations. Females exhibit a pale venter. Males exhibit a black throat. The chest and anterior belly may also exhibit some darker pigmentation in males, while the posterior part of the belly is white.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Size

According to Angel (1940), the male holotype measures 16 mm; Zimkus (unpublished) found this specimen (MNHNP 1939.113) to be smaller at 13.9 mm. Zimkus also recorded snout-vent lengths for males from 141- 17.8 mm (N=3) and for females from 15.6-19.0 mm (N=5).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Diagnostic Description

Phrynobatrachus manengoubensis is a very small species (SVL < 19 mm) that exhibits a barely visible tympanum, absent or rudimentary webbing (4 phalanges free on toe IV), and small digital discs. Breeding males have a black throat.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Comparisons

Comparison of specimens of P. manengoubensis with P. werneri by Zimkus (2009), including type material (P. manengoubensis, MNHNP 1939.113; P. werneri, ZMB 20434), revealed no significant morphometric differences between these species. P. chukuchuku may be distinguished from P. manengoubensis and P. werneri by much darker coloration, both on the dorsum and venter (not including the dark or black gular region found in males of these species), as well as the presence of ventral spines.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Habitat and Ecology

The habitat surround the relatively shallow Crate Lake is montane grassland (2,000m asl.).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Population Biology

The population status of this species is unknown (Amiet, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Reproduction

It presumably breeds in the Cater Lake on Mt Manengouba (Amiet, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Phylogenetics

Phrynobatrachus werneri was found to be paraphyletic with respect to P. manengoubensis by Zimkus (2009) based on the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, valine-tRNA, and 16S rRNA. The mean sequence divergence between P. werneri and P. manengoubensis was 3.16% ± 0.78, two sequences of P. werneri differed by 3.95%, and no variation was detected amongst sequences of P. manengoubensis. Additional specimens of P. werneri, particularly from Mt Kupe, Mt Nlonako, and Mt Manengouba, are needed for molecular and morphological comparison to determine if P. manengoubensis should be synonymized with this species or multiple species are currently identified as P. werneri.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status

The IUCN Red List (2009) categorizes this species as Data Deficient in view of continuing doubts as to its taxonomic validity as well as absence of recent information on its extent of occurrence, status and ecological requirements (Amiet, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Threats

There is no direct information on threats to this species (Amiet, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Conservation Actions and Management

Few portions of highlands of western Cameroon are under formal protected status at the national level (Bergl et al., 2007). Some highland habitats, such as forests on Mt Oku, are delineated well and have some protection from local traditional rulers, but people often ignore local laws. Zimkus (2009) reports that if conservation of unique taxa with smaller ranges is a priority, then the mid-highlands, including Mt Manengouba, the Bamenda-Banso Highlands, and specifically Mt Oku, should be the focus of conservation efforts.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/