Lannoo References


(Translations may not be accurate.)

bookcover The following literature references are from Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species, edited by Michael Lannoo (©2005 by the Regents of the University of California), used with permission of University of California Press. The book is available from UC Press.

Literature references beginning with letter:     [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [Y] [Z]

Rabalais, F.C. 1970. Trematodes from some Caudata in Louisiana. American Midland Naturalist 84:265–267.
Rabb, G.B. 1956. Some observations on the salamander Stereochilus marginatum. Copeia 1956:119.
Rabb, G.B. 1966. Stereochilus and S. marginatus. Pp. 25.1–25.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Rabinowe, J.H., J.T. Serra, M.P. Hayes and T. Quinn. 2002. Natural history notes: Rana aurora aurora (northern red-legged frog). Diet. Herpetological Review 33:128.
Rabor, D.S. 1952. Preliminary notes on the giant toad Bufo marinus (Linn.) in the Philippine Islands. Copeia 1952:281–282.
Radke, M.F. 1998. Ecology of the barking frog (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in Caves County, New Mexico. Report to New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, Share with Wildlife, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Rafferty, K.A., Jr. 1967. The biology of spontaneous renal carcinoma of the frog. Pp. 301–315. In King, J.S. (Ed.), Renal Neoplasia. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Rafferty, K.A., Jr. and N.S. Rafferty. 1961. High incidence of transmissible kidney tumors in uninoculated frogs maintained in a laboratory. Science 133:702–703.
Rafinesque, C.S. 1818. American Monthly Magazine Critical Reviews 4:41.
Rafinesque, C.S. 1820. Annals of nature or annual synopsis of new genera and species of animals, plants, etc. discovered in North America. III Class. Erpetia: The Reptiles, Number 1, Thomas Smith, Printer, Lexington, Kentucky.
Rafinesque, C.S. 1822. On two new salamanders of Kentucky. Kentucky Gazette, N.S. Volume 1(9):3, Lexington, Kentucky.
Raimondo, S.M., C.L. Rowe and J.D. Congdon. 1998. Exposure to coal ash impacts swimming performance and predator avoidance in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Journal of Herpetology 32:289–292.
Ralin, D.B. 1968. Ecological and reproductive differentiation in the cryptic species of the Hyla versicolor complex (Hylidae). Southwestern Naturalist 13:283–299.
Ralin, D.B. 1977a. Evolutionary aspects of mating call variation in a diploid-tetraploid species complex of treefrogs (Anura). Evolution 31:721–736.
Ralin, D.B. 1977b. Hybridization of Hyla cinerea of the United States and Hyla arborea savignyi (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae) of Israel. Journal of Herpetology 11:105–106.
Ralin, D.B. 1981. Ecophysiological adaptation in a diploid-tetraploid complex of treefrogs (Hylidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 68:175–179.
Ralin, D.B. and J.S. Rogers. 1972. Aspects of tolerance to desiccation in Acris crepitans and Pseudacris streckeri. Copeia 1972:519–525.
Ralin, D.B. and J.S. Rogers. 1979. A morphological analysis of a North American diploid-tetraploid complex of treefrogs (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae). Journal of Herpetology 13:261–269.
Ralin, D.B. and R.K. Selander. 1979. Evolutionary genetics of treefrogs of the genus Hyla. Evolution 33:595–608.
Ralin, D.B., M.A. Romano and C.W. Kilpatrick. 1983. The tetraploid treefrog Hyla versicolor: evidence for a single origin from the diploid H. chrysoscelis. Herpetologica 39:212–225.
Ralls, K. 1997. On becoming a conservation biologist: autobiography and advise. In Clemmons, J.R. and R. Buchholz (Eds.), Behavioral Approaches to Conservation in the Wild. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Ralph, P.H. 1938. Cercaria concavocorpa Sizemore becomes Tetrapapillatrema, a new telorchiid-like genus of Plagiorchioidea Dollfus. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 57:376–382.
Ramer, J.D., T.H. Jenssen and C.J. Hurst. 1983. Size-related variation in the advertisement call of Rana clamitans (Anura: Ranidae), and its effect on conspecific males. Copeia 1983:141–155.
Ramirez, R.S., Jr. 2000. Arroyo toad (Bufo californicus) radio telemetry study, Little Rock Creek, Los Angeles County, California. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Arcadia, California.
Ramirez-Bautista, A., O. Flores-Villela and G. Casas-Andreu. 1982. New herpetological state records for Mexico. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 18:167–169.
Ramos Ramos, P. 1995. Some trematodes of vertebrates from the Miguel Aleman dam in Temascal, Oaxaca, Mexico. Anales del Instituto de Biologia. Serie Zoologica 66:241–246.
Ramotnik, C.A. 1986. Status report, Plethodon neomexicanus Stebbins and Riemer, Jemez Mountains salamander. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ft. Collins, Colorado.
Ramotnik, C.A. 1988. Habitat requirements and movements of Jemez Mountains salamanders, Plethodon neomexicanus. Master's thesis. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Ramotnik, C.A. 1997. Conservation assessment of the Sacramento Mountain salamander. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, General Technical Report, RM-GTR-293, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Ramotnik, C.A. and N.J. Scott Jr. 1988. Habitat requirements of New Mexico's endangered salamanders. Pp. 54–63. In Szaro, R.C., K.E. Severson and D.R. Patton (Eds.), Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Technical Report, RM-166, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Ramsey, L.W. and J.W. Forsyth. 1950. Breeding dates for Ambystoma texanum. Herpetologica 6:70.
Ramus, E. (Ed.). 1998. 1998–1999 directory: The herpetology sourcebook. Reptile and Amphibian Magazine, Pottsville, Pennsylvania.
Rand, A.S. 1950. Leopard frogs in caves in winter. Copeia 1950:324.
Rand, A.S. 1952. Jumping ability of certain anurans with notes on endurance. Copeia 1952:15–20.
Rand, A.S. and P.J. Rand. 1966. The relation of size and distance jumped in Bufo marinus. Herpetologica 22:206–209.
Rand, G.M., P.G. Wells and L.S. McCarty. 1995. Introduction to aquatic toxicology. In Rand, G.M. (Ed.), Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology: Effects, Environmental Fate, and Risk Assessment. Taylor and Francis, Washington, D.C.
Raney, E.C. 1940. Summer movements of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana Shaw, as determined by the jaw-tag method. American Midland Naturalist 23:733–745.
Raney, E.C. and W.M. Ingram. 1941. Growth of tagged frogs (Rana catesbeiana Shaw and Rana clamitans Daudin) under natural conditions. American Midland Naturalist 26:201–206.
Rankin, J.S. 1937. An ecological study of parasites of some North Carolina salamanders. Ecological Monographs 7:169–269.
Rankin, J.S., Jr. 1938. Studies on the trematode genus Brachycoelium Duj. I. Variation in specific characters with reference to the validity of the described species. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 57:358–375.
Rankin, J.S. 1939. The life cycle of the frog bladder fluke, Gorgoderina attenuata Stafford, 1902 (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae). American Midland Naturalist 21:476–488.
Rankin, J.S. 1944. A review of the trematode genus Glypthelmins Stafford, 1905, with an account of the life cycle of G. quieta (Stafford, 1900) Stafford, 1905. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 63:30–43.
Rankin, J.S., Jr. 1945. An ecological study of the helminth parasites of amphibians and reptiles of western Massachusetts and vicinity. Journal of Parasitology 31:142–150.
Ranta, E. 1992. Gregariousness versus solitude: another look at parasite faunal richness in Canadian freshwater fishes. Oecologia 89:150–152.
Rapaport, R.A., N.R. Urban, P.D. Capel, J.E. Baker, B.B. Looney, S.J. Eisenreich and E. Gorham. 1985. New DDT inputs to North America: atmospheric deposition. Chemosphere 14:1167–1173.
Raphael, M.G. 1988. Long‑term trends in abundance of amphibians, reptiles, and mammals in Douglas‑fir forests of northwestern California. Pp. 23–31. In Szaro, R.C., K.E. Severson and D. Patton (Tech. Coords.), Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Technical Report, RM‑166, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Rappole, J.H. and J. Klicka. 1991. Status of the black-spotted newt (Notophthalmus meridionalis) in Texas and Mexico. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Lower Rio Grande Valley Wildlife Refuge, Unpublished report, Alamo, Texas.
Rassner, G. 1991. Of toads and birdies. Beacon 1:1, 5, 8.
Rassner, G. 1994. Song of the open road. Beacon 4:3, 8.
Rathbun, G.B. 1998. Natural history notes: Rana aurora draytonii (California red-legged frog). Egg predation. Herpetological Review 29:165.
Rathbun, G.B. and T.G. Murphey. 1996. Evaluation of a radio-belt for ranid frogs. Herpetological Review 27:187–189.
Rathke, M.H. 1833. In Eschscholtz, F. 1833. Zoologischer Atlas. Part 5. Reimer, Berlin, Germany.
Raun, G.G. 1959. Terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates of a moist, relict area in central Texas. Texas Journal of Science 11:158–171.
Raun, G.G. and F.R. Gehlbach. 1972. Amphibians and reptiles in Texas. Dallas Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Number 2, Dallas, Texas.
Ray, G.C. 1958. The vital limits and rates of desiccation in salamanders. Ecology 39:75–83.
Raymond, L.R. 1991. Seasonal activity of Siren intermedia in northwestern Louisiana (Amphibia: Sirenidae). Southwestern Naturalist 36:144–147.
Raymond, L.R. and L.M. Hardy. 1990. Demography of a population of Ambystoma talpoideum (Caudata: Ambystomatidae) in northwestern Louisiana. Herpetologica 46:371–382.
Raymond, L.R. and L.M. Hardy. 1991. Effects of a clearcut on a population of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, in an adjacent unaltered forest. Journal of Herpetology 25:509–512.
Read, J.L. and M.J. Tyler. 1994. Natural levels of abnormalities in the trilling frog (Neobactrachus centralis) at the Olympic Dam Mine. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53:25–31.
Reading, C.J. 1998. The effect of winter temperatures on the timing of breeding activity in the common toad Bufo bufo. Oecologia 117:469–475.
Reagan, D.P. 1972. Ecology and distribution of the Jemez Mountains salamander, Plethodon neomexicanus. Copeia 1972:486–492.
Real, L.A. 1996. Disease ecology. Ecology 77:989.
Reaser, J.K. 1996a. The elucidation of amphibian declines. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 1:4–9.
Reaser, J.K. 1996b. Natural history notes: Rana pretiosa (spotted frog). Vagility. Herpetological Review 27:196.
Reaser, J.K. 1997a. Amphibian declines: conservation science and adaptive management. Ph.D. dissertation. Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Reaser, J.K. 1997b. Natural history notes: Batrachoseps attenuatus. Predation. Herpetological Review 28:81.
Reaser, J.K. 2000a. Amphibian declines: an issue overview. U.S. Taskforce on Amphibian Declines and Deformities, Washington, D.C.
Reaser, J.K. 2000b. Demographic analyses of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris): case study in spatio-temporal variation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:1158–1511.
Reaser, J.K. 2003. Occurrence of the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) in Nevada, USA. Western North American Naturalist 63:400–401.
Reaser, J.K. and R.E. Dexter. 1996a. Natural history notes: Rana pretiosa. (spotted frog). Predation. Herpetological Review 27:75.
Reaser, J.K. and R.E. Dexter. 1996b. Natural history notes: Rana pretiosa. (spotted frog). Toe clipping effects. Herpetological Review 27:195–196.
Reaser, J.K. and C. Galindo-Leal. 1999. La Desaparacion de las Rasas: Mesoamerica y el Caribe. Vanishing Frogs: Mesoamerica and the Caribbean. U.S. Federal Taskforce on Amphibian Declines and Defomities (TADD) and IUCN Declining Amphibian Population Task Force (DAPTF), Washington, D.C.
Reaser, J.K. and P.T. Johnson. 1997. Amphibian abnormalities—a review. Froglog: Newsletter of the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force 24:2–4.
Reaser, J.K., R. Pomerance and P.O. Thomas. 2000. Coral bleaching and global climate change: scientific findings and policy recommendations. Conservation Biology 14:1500–1511.
Reddell, J.R. 1970. A checklist of the cave fauna of Texas. VI. Additional records of Vertebrata. Texas Journal of Science 22:139–158.
Redman, W.H. and R.L. Jones. 1985. Geographic distribution: Plethodon wehrlei (Wehrle’s salamander). Herpetological Review 16:31.
Redmer, M. 1995. Natural history notes: Ambystoma texanum (smallmouth salamander). Maximum size. Herpetological Review 26:29.
Redmer, M. 1998a. Natural history notes: Hyla avivoca (bird-voiced treefrog). Amplexus and oviposition. Herpetological Review 29:230–231.
Redmer, M. 1998b. Status and distribution of two uncommon frogs, pickerel frogs and wood frogs in Illinois. Pp. 83–90. In Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Redmer, M. 2000. Demographic and reproductive characteristics of a southern Illinois population of the crayfish frog, Rana areolata. Pp. 128–133. In Kaiser, H., G.S. Casper and N.P. Bernstein (Eds.), Investigating Amphibian Declines: Proceedings of the 1998 Declining Amphibians Conference. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, Volume 107, Cedar Falls, Iowa.
Redmer, M. 2002. Natural history of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) in the Shawnee National Forest, southern Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 36:163–194.
Redmer, M. and S.R. Ballard. 1995. Recent distribution records for amphibians and reptiles in Illinois. Herpetological Review 26:49–53.
Redmer, M. and S.J. Karsen. 1990. Winter activity of the eastern spadefoot (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in southern Missouri. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 25:88.
Redmer, M. and G. Kruse. 1998. Updates to the list of Illinois' endangered and threatened amphibians and reptiles. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 33:244–245.
Redmer, M. and K.S. Mierzwa. 1994. A review of the distribution and zoogeography of the pickerel frog, Rana palustris, in northern Illinois. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society. 29:21–30.
Redmer, M., D.L. Jamieson and S.E. Trauth. 1999b. Notes on the diet of female bird-voiced treefrogs (Hyla avivoca) in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 92:271–275.
Redmer, M., L.E. Brown and R.A. Brandon. 1999a. Natural history of the bird-voiced treefrog (Hyla avivoca) and green treefrog (Hyla cinerea) in southern Illinois. Bulletin of the Illinois Natural History Survey 36:37–66.
Redmer, M., J.B. Camerer, J.K. Tucker and J. Capps. 1995. Geographic distribution: Rana palustris (pickerel frog), Illinois. Herpetological Review 26:42.
Redmond, W.H. 1980. Notes on the distribution and ecology of the Black Mountain dusky salamander Desmognathus welteri Barbour (Amphibia: Plethodontidae) in Tennessee. Brimleyana 4:123–131.
Redmond, W.H. and A.F. Scott. 1996. Atlas of Amphibians in Tennessee. The Center for Field Biology, Miscellaneous Publication, Number 12, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee.
Redmond, W.H., A.F. Scott and D. Roberts. 1982. Comments on the distribution of Ambystoma talpoideum (Holbrook) in Tennessee. Herpetological Review 13:83–85.
Reed, C.A. and R. Borowsky. 1967. The “world’s largest toad” and other herpetological specimens from southern Suriname. Studies on the Fauna of Suriname and other Guyana 50:159–171.
Reed, H.D. and A.H. Wright. 1909. The vertebrates of the Cayuga Lake Basin, N.Y. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 48:370–459.
Reeder, A.L., G.L. Foley, D.K. Nichols, L.G. Hansen, B. Wikoff, S. Faeh, J. Eisold, M.B. Wheeler, R. Warner, J.E. Murphy and V.R. Beasely. 1998. Forms and prevalence of intersexuality and effects of environmental contaminants on sexuality in cricket frogs (Acris crepitans). Environmental Health Perspectives 106:261–266.
Rees, W.J. 1965. The aerial dispersal of Mollusca. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 36:269–282.
Reese, A.M. 1933. The fauna of West Virginia caves. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science 7:39–53.
Reese, R.W. 1969. The taxonomy and ecology of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum)of Colorado. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
Regester, K.J. 2000a. Plethodon richmondi. Pp. 707.1–707.3. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Regester, K.J. 2000b. Plethodon electromorphus. Pp. 706.1–706.3. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Regosin, J.V., B.S. Windmiller and J.M. Reed. 2003. Terrestrial habitat use and winter densities of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica). Journal of Herpetology 37:390–394.
Reh, W. and A. Seitz. 1989. Untersuchungen zum Einfluß der Landnutzung auf die genetische Struktur von Populationen des Grasfrosches (Rana temporaria L.). Verhandlung der Gesellschaft für Ökologie 18:793–796.
Reh, W. and A. Seitz. 1990. The influence of land use on the genetic structure of populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria). Biological Conservation 54:239–249.
Reiber, R.J. 1941. Nematodes of Amphibia and Reptilia. I. Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Sciences 5:92–99.
Reichel, J.D. 1996. Preliminary amphibian and reptile survey of the Helena National Forest: 1995. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Helena National Forest, Helena, Montana.
Reichel, J.D. and D.L. Flath. 1995. Identification of Montana’s amphibians and reptiles. Montana Outdoors 26:15–34.
Reichenbach-Klinke, H. and E. Elkan. 1965. The Principal Diseases of Lower Vertebrates. Academic Press, New York.
Reigle, N.J. 1967. The occurrence of Necturus in the deeper waters of Green Bay. Herpetologica 23:232–233.
Reilly, S.M. 1987. Ontogeny of the hyobrachial apparatus in the salamanders Ambystoma talpodium (Ambystomatidae) and Notophthalmus viridescens (Salamandridae): the ecological morphology of two neotenic strategies. Journal of Morphology 191:205–214.
Reilly, S.M. and R. Altig. 1996. Cranial ontogeny in Siren intermedia (Caudata: Sirenidae): paedomorphic, metamorphic, and novel patterns of heterochrony. Copeia 1996:29–41.
Reilly, S.M., G.V. Lauder and J.P. Collins. 1992. Performance consequences of a trophic polymorphism: feeding behavior in typical and cannibal phenotypes of Ambystoma tigrinum. Copeia 1992:672–679.
Reimchen, T.E. 1991. Introduction and dispersal of the Pacific treefrog, Hyla regilla, on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 105:288–290.
Reimer, W.J. 1958. Giant toads of Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Science 21:207–211.
Reinbold, S.L. 1979. Habitat comparisons of two sympatric salamander species of the genus Plethodon (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae). Journal of Herpetology 13:504–506.
Reinert, H.K. 1991. Translocation as a conservation strategy for amphibians and reptiles: some comments, concerns, and observations. Herpetologica 47:357–363.
Reis, K.M. and E.D. Bellis. 1966. Spring food habits of the red-spotted newt in Pennsylvania. Herpetologica 22:152–155.
Reister, A., S. Horner and D. Carlson. 1998. Chromosomal analysis of deformed frogs. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science 77:95.
Relyea, R.A. 2000. Trait-mediated indirect effects in larval anurans: reversing competitive outcomes with the threat of predation. Ecology 81:2278–2289.
Relyea, R.A. 2001. Morphological and behavioral plasticity of larval anurans in response to different predators. Ecology 82:523–540.
Relyea, R.A. and E.E. Werner. 1999. Quantifying the relation between predator-induced behavior and growth performance in larval anurans. Ecology 80:2117–2124.
Relyea, R.A. and E.E. Werner. 2000. Morphological plasticity of four anurans distributed along an environmental gradient. Copeia 2000:178–190.
Renaud, M. 1977. Polymorphic and polytypic variation in the Arizona treefrog (Hyla wrightorum). Ph.D. dissertation. Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.
Renken, R.B., W.K. Gram, D.K. Fantz, S.C. Richter, T.J. Miller, K.B. Ricke, B. Russell and X. Wang. 2004. Effects of forest management on amphibians and reptiles in Missouri Ozark Forests. Conservation Biology 18:174–188.
Reno, H.W., F.R. Gehlbach and R.A. Turner. 1972. Skin and aestivational cocoon of the aquatic amphibian, Siren intermedia Le Conte. Copeia 1972:625–631.
Repenning, R.W. and R.F. Labisky. 1985. Effects of even-age timber management on bird communities of the longleaf pine forest in northern Florida. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:1088–1098.
Reques, R. and M. Tejedo. 1995. Negative correlation between length of larval period and metamorphic size in natural populations of natterjack toads (Bufo calamita). Journal of Herpetology 29:311–314.
Resetar, A. 1998. Locating historical information on amphibian populations. Pp. 379–384. In Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Resetarits, W.J., Jr. 1986. Ecology of cave use by the frog, Rana palustris. American Midland Naturalist 116:256–266.
Resetarits, W.J., Jr. 1991. Ecological interactions among predators in experimental stream communities. Ecology 72:1782–1793.
Resetarits, W.J., Jr. 1995. Competitive asymmetry and coexistence in size-structured populations of brook trout and spring salamanders. Oikos 73:188–198.
Resetarits, W.J., Jr. 1998. Differential vulnerability of Hyla chrysoscelis eggs and hatchlings to larval insect predators. Journal of Herpetology 32:440–443.
Resetarits, W.J. and R.D. Aldridge. 1988. Reproductive biology of a cave-associated population of the frog Rana palustris. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66:329–333.
Resetarits, W.J., Jr. and H.M. Wilbur. 1989. Choice of oviposition site by Hyla chrysoscelis: role of predators and competitors. Ecology 70:220–228.
Reynolds, A.E. 1959. Observations on various stages of topotypic Plethodon jordani. Herpetologica 15:183–192.
Reynolds, T.D. and T.D. Stephens. 1984. Multiple ectopic limbs in a wild population of Hyla regilla. Great Basin Naturalist 44:166–169.
Richards, C.M. 1958. The inhibition of growth in crowded Rana pipiens tadpoles. Physiological Zoology 31:138–151.
Richards, S.J., K.R. McDonald and R.A. Alford. 1993. Declines in populations of Australia’s endemic tropical rainforest frogs. Pacific Conservation Biology 1:66–77.
Richardson, C.J. 1983. Pocosins: vanishing wastelands or valuable wetlands? Bioscience 33:626–633.
Richardson, C.J. 1991. Pocosins: an ecological perspective. Wetlands 11 (Special Issue):335–354.
Richardson, J.P.M. and M.L. Adamson. 1988. A new Kathlaniidae (Cosmocercoidea; Nematoda), Megalobatrachonema (Chabaudgolvania) moraveci sp. n. from the intestine of the rough-skinned newt, Taricha granulosa. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 55:155–159.
Richman, J.B. 1973. A range extension for the Tehachapi slender salamander, Batrachoceps stebbinsi [sic]. Herpetological Information Search Systems News-Journal 1:97.
Richmond, N.D. 1945. Nesting of the two-lined salamander on the Coastal Plain. Copeia 1945:170.
Richmond, N.D. 1947. Life history of Scaphiopus holbrookii (Harlan). Part I: larval development and behavior. Ecology 28:53–66.
Richmond, N.D. 1952. First record of the green salamander in Pennsylvania, and other range extensions in Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 32:313–318.
Richmond, N.D. 1964. The green frog (Rana clamitans melanota) developing in one season. Herpetologica 20:132.
Richter, K.O. and A.L. Azous. 1995. Amphibian occurrence and wetland characteristics in the Puget Sound Basin. Wetlands 15:305–312.
Richter, K.O. and A.L. Azous. 2000. Amphibian distribution, abundance, and habitat use. Pp. 143–166. In Azous, A.L. and R.R. Horner (Eds.), Wetlands and Urbanization: Implications for the Future. CRC Press LLC., Boca Raton, Florida.
Richter, S.C. 1998. The demography and reproductive biology of gopher frogs, Rana capito, in Mississippi. Master's thesis. Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, Louisiana.
Richter, S.C. 2000. Larval caddisfly predation on the eggs and embryos of Rana capito and Rana sphenocephala. Journal of Herpetology 34:590–593.
Richter, S.C. and R.A. Seigel. 1997. Demography and reproduction of gopher frogs in Mississippi. Unpublished 1997 report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jackson, Mississippi.
Richter, S.C. and R.A. Seigel. 1998. Demography and reproduction of gopher frogs in Mississippi. Unpublished 1998 report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jackson, Mississippi.
Richter, S.C. and R.A. Seigel. 2002. Annual variation in the population ecology of the endangered gopher frog, Rana sevosa Goin and Netting. Copeia 2002:962–972.
Richter, S.C., J.E. Young, G.N. Johnson and R.A. Seigel. 2003. Stochastic variation in reproductive success of a rare frog, Rana sevosa: implications for conservation and for monitoring amphibian populations. Biological Conservation 111:171–177.
Richter, S.C., J.E. Young, R.A. Seigel and G.N. Johnson. 2001. Post-breeding movements of the dark gopher frog, Rana sevosa Goin and Netting: implications for conservation and management. Journal of Herpetology 35:316–321.
Ricker, W.E. and E.B.S. Logier. 1935. Notes on the occurrence of the ribbed toad (Ascaphus truei Stegneger) in Canada. Copeia 1935:46.
Ridgway, R. 1889. The Ornithology of Illinois. Descriptive Catalogue. Volume 1, Natural History Survey of Illinois, State Laboratory of Natural History (1913 reprint). Pantagraph Printing and Stationery Company, Bloomington, Illinois.
Riemer, W.J. 1955. Comments on the distribution of certain Mexican toads. Herpetologica 11:17–23.
Riemer, W.J. 1958. Variation and systematic relationships within the salamander genus Taricha. University of California Publications in Zoology 56:301–390.
Riesecrer, J.M., M.T. Anderson, D.P. Chivers, E.L. Wildy, J. Devito, A. Marco, A.R. Blaustein, J.J. Beatty and R.M. Storm. 1996. Natural history notes: Plethodon dunni (Dunn's salamander). Cannibalism. Herpetological Review 27:194.
Riffel, M. and M. Braun. 1987. Zwischenbericht zur Amphibienfauna im Raum Bruchsal. Beihefte zu den Veröffentlichungen für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege in Baden-Württemberg 41:313–320.
Riggin, G.T. 1956. A note on Ribeiroia ondatrae (Price, 1931) in Puerto Rico. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 23:28–29.
Riley, S.P.D., H.B. Shaffer, S.R. Voss and B.M. Fitzpatrick. 2003. Hybridization between a rare, native tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) and its introduced congener. Ecological Applications 13:1263–1275.
Rimbach, D.N. 1968. Low Water Bridge Cave. Missouri Speleology 10:122–124.
Rimpp, K. 1992. Amphibien und Reptilien in Schönbuch und Gäu. Pp. 155–178. In Schubert, W. (Ed.), Die Teirwelt in Schönbuch und Gäu. Die Wirbeltiere und ihr Schutz. Natur-Rems-Murr Verlag, Remshalden-Buoch.
Rimpp, K. and G. Hermann. 1987. Die Amphibien des Landkreises Böblingen. Jahrbuch für Feldherpetologie 1:3–17.
Rios-López, N. and R.L. Joglar. 1999. Geographic distribution: Rana grylio (pig frog). Herpetological Review 30:230–231.
Ripert, C.L. and C.P. Raccurt. 1987. The impact of small dams on parasitic diseases in Cameroon. Parasitology Today 3:287–289.
Rising, J.D. and F.W. Schueler. 1980. Screech owl eats fish and salamander in winter. Wilson Bulletin 92:250–251.
Rist, L., R.D. Semlitsch, H. Hotz and H.-U. Reyer. 1997. Feeding behavior, food consumption, and growth efficiency of hemiclonal and parental tadpoles of the Rana esculenta complex. Functional Ecology 11:735–742.
Ritchie, S.A. 1982. The green treefrog (Hyla cinerea) as a predator of mosquitoes in Florida. Mosquito News 42:619.
Ritke, M.E. and J.G. Babb. 1991. Behavior of the gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) during the breeding season. Herpetological Review 22:5–8.
Ritke, M.E. and C.A. Lessman. 1994. Longitudinal study of ovarian dynamics in female gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis). Copeia 1994:1014–1022.
Ritke, M.E., J.G. Babb and M.K. Ritke. 1990. Life history of the gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) in western Tennessee. Herpetologica 24:135–141.
Ritke, M.E., J.G. Babb and M.K. Ritke. 1991a. Annual growth rates of adult gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis). Journal of Herpetology 25:382–385.
Ritke, M.E., J.G. Babb and M.K. Ritke. 1991b. Breeding-site specificity in the gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis). Journal of Herpetology 25:123–125.
Ritland, K., L.A. Dupuis, F.L. Bunnell, W.L.Y. Hung and J.E. Carlson. 2000. Phylogeography of the tailed frog (Ascaphus truei) in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:1749–1758.
Ritter, W.E. 1897. The life-history and habits of the Pacific Coast newt (Diemyctylus torosus Esch.). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Series 3, 1:73–114.
Ritter, W.E. 1903. Further notes on the habits of Autodax lugubris. American Naturalist 37:883–886.
Ritter, W.E. and L. Miller. 1899. A contribution to the life history of Autodax lugubris, a Californian salamander. American Naturalist 33:691–704.
Rittschof, D. 1975. Some aspects of the natural history and ecology of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los Anfibios Y Reptiles De Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Robbins, C.S. 1981. Bird activity levels related to weather. Studies in Avian Biology, Number 6:301–310.
Robbins, C.S., D. Bystrak and P.H. Geissler. 1986. The Breeding Bird Survey: its first fifteen years, 1965–1979. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource Publication, Number 157, Washington, D.C.
Robbins, C.S., D.K. Dawson and B.A. Dowell. 1989. Habitat area requirements of breeding forest birds of the Middle Atlantic States. Wildlife Monograph, Number 103, Wildlife Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
Roberts, D.T., D.M. Schleser and T.L. Jordan. 1995. Notes on the captive husbandry and reproduction of the Texas salamander Eurycea neotenes at the Dallas Aquarium. Herpetological Review 26:23–25.
Roberts, K.A. and R.B. Page. 2003. Natural history notes: Hyla cinerea (green tree frog). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 34:136.
Roberts, L.S. and J. Janovy Jr. 1996. Foundations of Parasitology. Fifth edition. William C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa.
Roberts, L.S. and J. Janovy Jr. 2000. Gerald D. Schmidt and Larry S. Roberts’ Foundations of Parasitology. Sixth edition. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa.
Roberts, M.E. 1963. Studies on the transmissibility and cytology of the renal carcinoma of Rana pipiens. Cancer Research 23:1709–1714.
Roberts, W. 1981. What happened to the leopard frogs? Alberta Naturalist 11:1–4.
Roberts, W. 1992. Declines in amphibian populations in Alberta. Pp. 14–16. In Bishop, C.A. and K.E. Pettit (Eds.), Declines in Canadian Amphibian Populations: Designing A National Monitoring Strategy. Canadian Wildlife Service, Occasional Paper, Number 76, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Roberts, W. and V. Lewin. 1979. Habitat utilization and population densities of the amphibians of northeastern Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist 93:144–154.
Robertson, D.G. and R.D. Slack. 1995. Landscape change and its effects on the wintering range of a lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population: a review. Biological Conservation 71:179–185.
Robertson, W. B. and E.L. Tyson. 1950. Herpetological notes from eastern North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 66:130–147.
Robinson, T.S. 1957. Notes on the development of a brood of Mississippi kites in Barber County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 60:174–180.
Robinson, T.S. and K.T. Reichard. 1965. Notes on the breeding biology of the midland mud salamander, Pseudotriton montanus diastictus. Journal of the Ohio Herpetological Society 5:29.
Robison, H.W. and S. Winters. 1978. Geographic distribution: Ambystoma talpoideum (mole salamander). Herpetological Review 9:21.
Roble, S.M. 1979. Dispersal movements and plant associations of juvenile gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor LeConte. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 82:235–245.
Roble, S.M. 1985. Observations on satellite males in Hyla chrysoscelis, Hyla picta, and Pseudacris triseriata. Journal of Herpetology 19:432–436.
Roble, S.M. 1995. Geographic distribution: Siren intermedia intermedia (eastern lesser siren). Herpetological Review 26:150–151.
Roble, S.M. 1998. A zoological inventory of the Grafton Ponds sinkhole complex, York County, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage (Richmond), Natural Heritage Technical Report 98–3, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Roble, S.M. and C.S. Hobson. 1995. Records of amphibians and reptiles from the Clinch Ranger District, Jefferson National Forest. Catesbeiana 15:3–14.
Roble, S.M., D.J. Stevenson and C.S. Hobson. 1999. Distribution of the dwarf waterdog (Necturus punctatus) in Virginia, with comments on collecting techniques. Bannisteria 14:39–44.
Rogers, A.M. 1999. Ecology and natural history of Rana clamitans melanota in West Virginia. Master's thesis. Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia.
Rogers, C.P. 1996. Natural history notes: Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog). Predation. Herpetological Review 27:19.
Rogers, J.S. 1973a. Biochemical and morphological analysis of potential introgression between Bufo cognatus and B. speciosus. American Midland Naturalist 90:127–142.
Rogers, J.S. 1973b. Protein polymorphism, genetic heterozygosity and divergence in the toads Bufo cognatus and B. speciosus. Copeia 1973:322–330.
Rogers, Je. 1995a. Letter to Andrew Sansom, 16 February.
Rogers, Je. 1995b. E-mail message, acquired through Freedom of Information Act, to Ed Shellenberger, Neil Mangum, Joe Sovick, Cecilia Matic, Linda McClelland, Ethan Carr, Kitty L. Roberts, Joan Anzelmo, Destry Jarvis, Anne Badgley, Pat Tiller and Kate Stevenson, 22 February.
Rogers, Je. 1995c. E-mail message, acquired through Freedom of Information Act, to Roger Kennedy, 28 March.
Rogers, Je. 1995d. E-mail message, acquired through Freedom of Information Act, to Destry Jarvis, 17 April.
Rogers, Jo. 1994. Draft biological opinion for proposed action to expand the Lost Pines Golf Course in Bastrop State Park, located in Bastrop County, Texas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Austin, Texas.
Rogers, K. 1999. Toads to get own pad. Las Vegas Review Journal, Sunday 23 May, 1999,
Rohlf, D.J. 1994. There's something fishy going on here: a critique of the National Marine Fisheries Service's definition of species under the Endangered Species Act. Environmental Law 24:617–671.
Rojas, M. 1992. The species problem and conservation: what are we protecting? Conservation Biology 6:170–178.
Rollins, L.A. and R.G. McKinnell. 1980. The influence of glucocorticoids on survival and growth of allografted tumors in the anterior eye chamber of leopard frogs. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 4:283–294.
Rombough, C.J., D.J. Jordan and C.A. Pearl. 2003. Natural history notes: Rana cascadae (Cascade frog). Cannibalism. Herpetological Review 34:138.
Romspert, A.P. 1976. Osmoregulation of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in hypersaline media. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 54:207–210.
Rorabaugh, J.C. and J. Humphrey. 2002. The Tarahumara frog: return of a native. Endangered Species Bulletin 27:24–26.
Rorabaugh, J.C. and M.J. Sredl. 2002. Continued invasion by an introduced frog (Rana berlandieri) in Arizona, California, and Mexico: implications and opportunities for management. Pp. 112–113. In Halvorson, W.L. and G.S. Gebow (Eds.), Fourth Conference on Research and Resource Management in the Southwestern Deserts. Extended abstracts. Tucson, Arizona.
Rorabaugh, J.C., J.M. Howland and R.D. Babb. 2004. Distribution and habitat use of the Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla) on the lower Colorado River and in Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 49:94–99.
Rorabaugh, J.C., M.J. Sredl, V. Miera and C.A. Drost. 2002. Continued invasion of an introduced frog (Rana berlandieri): southwestern Arizona, southeastern California, and Rio Colorado, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 47:12–20.
Rose, F.L. 1966a. Reproductive potential of Amphiuma means. Copeia 1966:598–599.
Rose, F.L. 1966b. Weight change during starvation in Amphiuma means. Herpetologica 22:312–313.
Rose, F.L. 1966c. Homing to nests by the salamander Desmognathus auriculatus. Copeia 1966:251–253.
Rose, F.L. 1967. Seasonal changes in lipid levels of the salamanders Amphiuma means. Copeia 1967:662–666.
Rose, F.L. 1971. Eurycea aquatica. Pp. 116.1–116.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Rose, F.L. and D. Armentrout. 1976. Adaptive strategies of Ambystoma tigrinum Green inhabiting the Llano Estacado of west Texas. Journal of Animal Ecology 45:713–729.
Rose, F.L. and F.M. Bush. 1963. A new species of Eurycea (Amphibia: Caudata) from the southeastern United States. Tulane Studies in Zoology 10:121–128.
Rose, F.L. and J.L. Dobie. 1963. Desmognathus monticola in the coastal plain of Alabama. Copeia 1963:564–565.
Rose, F.L., D. Armentrout and P. Roper. 1971. Physiological responses of paedogenic Ambystoma tigrinum to acute anoxia. Herpetologica 27:101–107.
Rose, S.M. and F.C. Rose. 1952. Tumor agent transformation in amphibia. Cancer Research 12:1–12.
Rose, W. 1950. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Southern Africa. Maskew Miller, Limited, Cape Town, South Africa.
Rosen, M. and R.E. Lemon. 1974. The vocal behavior of spring peepers, Hyla crucifer. Copeia 1974:940–950.
Rosen, P.C. and C.H. Lowe. 1996. Ecology of the amphibians and reptiles at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona. National Park Service, Technical Report, Number 53, United States Department of the Interior, Tucson, Arizona.
Rosen, P.C. and C.R. Schwalbe. 1998. Using managed waters for conservation of threatened frogs. Pp. 180–195. In Feller, J.M. and D.S. Strouse (Eds.), Environmental, Economic, and Legal Issues Related to Rangeland Water Developments. Center for the Study of Law, Science and Technology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.
Rosen, P.C., S.S. Sartorius, C.R. Schwalbe, P.A. Holm and C.H. Lowe. 1996. Draft annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Sulphur Springs Valley, Cochise County, Arizona. Final Report, Part 1. Submitted to Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona.
Rosen, P.C., C.R. Schwalbe, D.A.J. Parizek, P.A. Holm and C.H. Lowe. 1995. Introduced aquatic vertebrates in the Chiricahua region: effects on declining ranid frogs. Pp. 251–261. In DeBano, L.F., G.J. Gottfried, R.H. Hamre, C.B. Edminster, P.F. Ffolliott and A. Ortega-Rubio (Eds.), Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago: The Sky Islands of Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Rosen, R. and R. Manis. 1976. Trematodes of Arkansas amphibians. Journal of Parasitology 62:833–834.
Rosenberg, E.A. and B.A. Pierce. 1995. Effect of initial mass on growth and mortality at low pH in tadpoles of Pseudacris clarkii and Bufo valliceps. Journal of Herpetology 29:181–185.
Rosenshield, M.L., M.B. Jofre and W.H. Karasov. 1999. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 on green frog (Rana clamitans) and leopard frog (Rana pipiens) hatching success, development, and metamorphosis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18:2478–2486.
Rosenthal, G.M. 1957. The role of moisture and temperature in the local distribution of the plethodontid salamander Aneides lugubris. University of California Publications in Zoology 54:371–420.
Ross, B.A., J.R. Tester and W.J. Breckenridge. 1968. Ecology of mima-type mounds in northwestern Minnesota. Ecology 49:172–177.
Ross, D.A. and B.J. Richardson. 1995. Natural history notes: Rana pretiosa (spotted frog). Basking behavior. Herpetological Review 26:203.
Ross, D.A, J.K. Reaser, P. Kleeman and D.L. Drake. 1999. Natural history notes: Rana luteiventris. (Columbia spotted frog). Mortality and site fidelity. Herpetological Review 30:163.
Ross, D.A, D.L. Shirley, P.A. White and L.D. Lentsch. 1993. Distribution of the spotted frog along the Wasatch Front in Utah, 1991–1992. Utah Division of Wildlife, Resources Publication, Number 93-4, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Ross, D.A, M.C. Stranger, K. McDonald, D.L. Shirley, P.A. White and L.D. Lentsch. 1994. Distribution, habitat use, and relative abundance indices of spotted frogs in the West Desert, Utah, 1993. Utah Division of Wildlife, Resources Publication, Number 93-15, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Ross, D.E., T.C. Esque, R.A. Fridell and P. Hovingh. 1995. Historical distribution, current status, and a range extension of Bufo boreas in Utah. Herpetological Review 26:187–189.
Ross, M.R. 1933. A preliminary biological survey of the Ringwood Wild Flower Preserve. Ph.D. dissertation. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Rossi, J.V. 1983. The use of olfactory cues by Bufo marinus. Journal of Herpetology 17:72–73.
Rossman, D.A. 1958. A new race of Desmognathus fuscus from the south-central United States. Herpetologica 14:158–160.
Rossman, D.A. 1960. Herpetofaunal survey of the Pine Hills area of southern Illinois. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Science 22:207–225.
Rossman, D.A. 1965a. Rediscovery of the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, in Louisiana. Proceedings of the Louisiana Academy of Science 27:17–20.
Rossman, D.A. 1965b. The Blue Ridge two-lined salamander, Eurycea bislineata wilderae, in southern Alabama. Herpetologica 20:287–288.
Rossman, D.A., N.B. Ford and R.A. Siegel. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.
Roth, A.H. and J.F. Jackson. 1987. The effect of pool size on recruitment of predatory insects and on mortality in a larval anuran. Herpetologica 43:224–232.
Rothermel, B. 2003. Movement behavior, migratory success, and demography of juvenile amphibains in a fragmented landscape. Ph.D dissertation. University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.
Roudebush, R.E. 1988. A behavioral assay for acid sensitivity in two desmognathine species of salamanders. Herpetologica 44:392–395.
Roudebush, R.E. and D.H. Taylor. 1987a. Behavioral interactions between two desmognathine salamander species: importance of competition and predation. Ecology 68:1453–1458.
Roudebush, R.E. and D.H. Taylor. 1987b. Chemical communication between two desmognathine salamanders. Copeia 1987:744–748.
Rous, P. 1967. The challenge to man of the neoplastic cell. Cancer Research 27:1919–1924.
Rouse, J.D., C.A. Bishop and J. Struger. 1999. Nitrogen pollution: an assessment of its threat to amphibian survival. Environmental Health Perspectives 107:799–803.
Roushdy, M.Z. and M. El-Eniani. 1981. A natural population of Heliosoma duryi in the River Nile in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Bilharziasis 8:87–89.
Routman, E. 1993. Population structure and genetic diversity of metamorphic and paedomorphic populations of the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 6:329–357.
Rowe, C.L. and J. Freda. 2000. Effects of acidification on amphibians at multiple levels of biological organization. Pp. 545–571. In Sparling, D.W., G. Linder and C.A. Bishop (Eds.), Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for Environmental Toxicology and Contaminants (SETAC) Press, Pensacola, Florida.
Rowe, C.L. and W.A. Dunson. 1993. Relationships among biotic parameters and breeding effort by three amphibians in temporary wetlands of central Pennsylvania. Wetlands 13:237–246.
Rowe, C.L. and W.A. Dunson. 1994. The value of simulated pond communities in mesocosms for studies of amphibian ecology and ecotoxicology. Journal of Herpetology 28:346–356.
Rowe, C.L. and W.A. Dunson. 1995. Impacts of hydroperiod on growth and survival of larval amphibians in temporary ponds of central Pennsylvania. Oecologia 102:397–403.
Rowe, C.L., O.M. Kinney and J.D. Congdon. 1998a. Oral deformities in tadpoles of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) caused by conditions in a polluted habitat. Copeia 1998:244–246.
Rowe, C.L., W.J. Sadinski and W.A. Dunson. 1994. Predation on larval and embryonic amphibians by acid-tolerant caddisfly larvae (Ptilostomis postica). Journal of Herpetology 28:357–364.
Rowe, C.L., O.M. Kinney, R.D. Nagle and J.D. Congdon. 1998b. Elevated maintenance costs in an anuran (Rana catesbeiana) exposed to a mixture of trace elements during the embryonic and early larval periods. Physiological Zoology 71:27–35.
Rowell, G.A. (Ed.). 1999. A status report on the threats facing populations of perennibranchiate hemidactyliine plethodontid salamanders of the genus Eurycea north of the Colorado River in Texas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 2, Final Section 6 Report, Part III, Grant E-1-4, Project 3.4, Section 6 Performance Report, Project E-1-2, Job 3.4, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Rowe-Rowe, D.T. 1977. Food ecology of otters in Natal, South Africa. Oikos 28:210–219.
Roy, M.S., E. Geffen, D. Smith and R.K. Wayne. 1996. Molecular genetics of pre-1940 red wolves. Conservation Biology 10:1413–1424.
Roy, M.S., E. Geffen, D. Smith, E.A. Ostrander and R.K. Wayne. 1994. Patterns of differentiation and hybridization in North American wolflike canids, revealed by analysis of microsatellite loci. Molecular Biology and Evolution 11:553–570.
Royama, T. 1992. Analytical Population Dynamics. Chapman and Hall, London, England.
Royder, S. 1995a. Letter to Edwin Shellenberger, 31 January.
Royder, S. 1995b. Letter to Claudia Nissley, Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 13 February.
Royder, S. 1995c. Letter to Roger Kennedy, 13 July.
Royder, S. 1995d. Letter to Roger Kennedy, 28 September.
Royder, S. 1995e. Letter to Nancy Kauffman, 24 October.
Royder, S. 1998. Letter to William Seawell, 29 January.
Rubenstein, N.M. 1969. A study of the salamanders of Mount Cheaha, Cleburne County, Alabama. Journal of Herpetology 3:33–47.
Rubin, D. 1965. Amphibians and reptiles of Vigo County, Indiana. Master's thesis. Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana.
Rubin, D. 1969. Food habits of Plethodon longicrus Adler and Dennis. Herpetologica 25:102–105.
Rubin, D. 1971. Desmognathus aeneus and D. wrighti on Wayah Bald. Journal of Herpetology 5:66.
Rubin, J.A. and A. Boucot. 1989. The origin of the lungless salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae). American Naturalist 134:161–169.
Rubin, J.A., N.L. Reagan, P.A. Verrell and A.J. Boucot. 1993. Plethodontid salamander origins: a response to Beachy and Bruce. American Naturalist 142:1038–1051.
Rubinoff, D. 1996. Natural history notes: Aneides lugubris (arboreal salamander). Predation. Herpetological Review 27:135.
Rudolph, D.C. 1978. Aspects of the larval ecology of five plethodontid salamanders of the western Ozarks. American Midland Naturalist 100:141–159.
Rudolph, D.C. 1980. Competition among five species of cave associated salamanders (Family Plethodontidae). Ph.D. dissertation. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas.
Ruffner, B.M. 1933. Practical frog raising. Southern Frog Farms, Jennings, Louisiana.
Ruggiero, L.F., L.L.C. Jones and K.B. Aubry. 1991. Plant and animal habitat associations in Douglas‑fir forests of the Pacific Northwest: an overview. Pp. 447–462. In Ruggiero, L.F., K.B. Aubry, A.B. Carey and M.H. Huff (Tech. Coords.), Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas‑fir Forests. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, General Technical Report, PNW‑GTR‑285, Portland, Oregon.
Ruibal, R. 1959. The ecology of a brackish water population of Rana pipiens. Copeia 1959:189–195.
Ruibal, R. 1962. The ecology and genetics of a desert population of Rana pipiens. Copeia 1962:189–195.
Ruibal, R. and S. Hillman. 1981. Cocoon structure and function in the burrowing hylid frog, Pternohyla fodiens. Journal of Herpetology 15:403–408.
Ruibal, R., L. Tevis Jr. and V. Roig. 1969. The terrestrial ecology of the spadefoot toad Scaphiopus hammondii. Copeia 1969:571–584.
Ruiz Garcia, F.N. 1987. Anfibios de Cuba. Editorial Gente Nueva, Palacio del Segundo Cabo, O'Reilley Number 4, Habana Vieja, La Habana.
Rundquist, E.M. 1979. The status of Bufo debilis and Opheodrys vernalis in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 82:67–70.
Russell, A.P. and A.M. Bauer. 1993. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Alberta. University of Calgary Press and University of Alberta Press, Calgary, Alberta.
Russell, A.P. and G.L. Powell and D.R. Hall. 1996. Growth and age of Alberta long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum krausei): a comparison of two methods of estimation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:397–412.
Russell, G.J., T.M. Brooks, M.M. McKinney and C.G. Anderson. 1997. Present and future taxonomic selectivity in bird and mammal extinctions. Conservation Biology 12:1365–1376.
Russell, K.R. and R.L. Wallace. 1992. Occurrence of Halipegus occidualis (Digenea: Derogenidae) and other trematodes in Rana pretiosa (Anura: Ranidae) from Idaho, USA. Transactions of the American Microscopic Society 111:122–127.
Russell, K.R., T.J. Mabee and M.B. Cole. in press. Distribution and habitat of Columbia torrent salamanders at multiple scales in managed forests of northwestern Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 68:in press.
Russell, K.R., A.A. Gonyaw, J.D. Strom, K.E. Diemer and K.C. Murk. 2002. Three new nests of the Columbia torrent salamander, Rhyacotriton kezeri, in Oregon with observations of nesting behavior. Northwestern Naturalist 83:19–22.
Russell, R.W. and J.D. Anderson. 1956. A disjunct population of the long-nosed salamander from the coast of California. Herpetologica 12:137–140.
Russell, W.H. 1976. Distribution of troglobitic salamanders in the San Marcos area, Hays Co., Texas. Texas Association for Biological Investigation of Troglobitic Eurycea, Report Number 7601, Austin, Texas.
Russell, W.H. 1993. The Buttercup Creek Karst, Travis and Williamson counties, Texas: geology, biology, and land development. Report to the University Speleological Society, University of Texas, Austin, Texas.
Russell-Hunter, W.D. 1978. Ecology of Freshwater Pulmonates. Pp. 335–383. In Fretter, A.V. and J. Peake (Eds.), Pulmonates: Systematics, Evolution and Ecology. Volume 2. Academic Press, New York.
Ruth, B.C., W.A Dunson, C.L. Rowe and S.B. Blair. 1993. A molecular and functional evaluation of the egg mass color polymorphism of the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum. Journal of Herpetology 27:306–314.
Ruth, F.S. 1961. Seven-legged bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Turtox News39:232.
Ruth, S.B. 1974. The current status of the Santa Cruz long-toed salamander—an endangered animal. Herpetological Review 5:27–28.
Ruth, S.B. 1988. The life history and current status of the Santa Cruz long-toed salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum. Pp. 89–110. In DeLisle, H.F., P.R. Brown, B. Kaufman and B. McGurty (Eds.), Proceedings of the Conference of California Herpetology, Special Publication, Number 4, Southwestern Herpetologists Society, Van Nuys, California.
Ruthven, A.G. 1907. A collection of reptiles and amphibians from southern New Mexico and Arizona. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 23:483–604.
Ruthven, A.G. 1912. Description of a new salamander from Iowa. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 41:517–519.
Ruthven, A.G. 1917. On the occurrence of Bufo fowleri in Michigan. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, Number 47, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Ruthven, A.G. 1919. The amphibians of the University of Michigan—Walker Expedition to British Guiana. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, Number 69, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Ruthven, A.G. and H.T. Gaige. 1915. The reptiles and amphibians collected in northeastern Nevada by the Walker-Newcomb Expedition of the University of Michigan. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, Number 8, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Ruwaldt, J.J., L.D. Flake and J.M. Gates. 1979. Waterfowl pair use of natural and man-made wetlands in South Dakota. Journal of Wildlife Management 43:375–383.
Ruxton, G.D., W.S. Gurney and A.M. deRoos. 1992. Interference and generation cycles. Theoretical Population Biology 442:235–253.
Ryan, M.J. 1980. The reproductive behavior of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Copeia 1980:108–114.
Ryan, M.J., K.M. Warkentin, B.E. McClelland and W. Wilczynski. 1995. Fluctuating asymmetries and advertisement call variation in the cricket frog, Acris crepitans. Behavioral Ecology 6:124–131.
Ryan, P.G. 1992. Fiscal shrike feeding by plunge diving. Ostrich 63:42.
Ryan, R.A. 1953. Growth rates of some ranids under natural conditions. Copeia 1953:73–80.
Ryan, T.J. 1997. Larva of Eurycea junaluska (Amphibia: Caudata: Plethodontidae), with comments on distribution. Copeia 1997:210–215.
Ryan, T.J. 1998a. Larval life history and abundance of a rare salamander, Eurycea junaluska. Journal of Herpetology 32:10–17.
Ryan, T.J. 1998b. Natural history notes: Eurycea junaluska (Junaluska salamander). Morphology. Herpetological Review 29:163.
Ryan, T.J. and R.C. Bruce. 2000. Life history evolution and adaptive radiation of hemidactyliine salamanders. Pp. 303–326. In Bruce, R.C., R.G. Jaeger and L.D. Houck (Eds.), The Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.
Ryder, O.A. 1986. Species conservation and systematics. The dilemma of subspecies. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 1:9–10.
Rye, L.A., W.J. Cook and J.P Bogart. 1997. The value of monitoring genetic diversity: distribution of ambystomatid salamander lineages in Ontario. Pp. 87–92. In Green D.M. (Ed.), Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. Herpetological Conservation, Number 1, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Ryser, J. 1986. Alterstruktur, Geschlechtsverhältnis und Dynamik einer Grasfrosch-Population (Rana temporaria L.) aus der Schweiz. Zoologischer Anzeiger 217:234–251.
Ryser, J. 1988. Clutch parameters in a Swiss population of Rana temporaria. Herpetological Journal 1:310–311.