|The following literature references are from Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species, edited by Michael Lannoo (©2005 by the Regents of the University of California), used with permission of University of California Press. The book is available from UC Press.|
Haber, V.R. 1926. The food of the Carolina tree frog, Hyla cinerea Schneider. Journal of Comparative Psychology 6:214–216.
Haddad, C.F.B. and J.P. Pombal Jr. 1998. Redescription of Physalaemus spiniger (Anura: Leptodactylidae) and description of two new reproductive modes. Journal of Herpetology 32:557–565.
Hadfield, S. 1966. Observations on body temperature and activity in the toad Bufo woodhousei fowleri. Copeia 1966:581–582.
Hadorn, E. 1961. Developmental Genetics and Lethal Factors. Methuen and Company, Limited, London, England.
Haertel, J.D. and R.M. Storm. 1970. Experimental hybridization between Rana pretiosa and Rana cascadae. Herpetologica 26:436–446.
Hager, H.A. 1998. Area-sensitivity of reptiles and amphibians: are there indicator species for habitat fragmentation? Ecoscience 5:139–147.
Hahn, D.E. 1960. Collecting notes on central Korean reptiles and amphibians. Journal of the Ohio Herpetological Society 2:16–24.
Haig, S.M., D.W. Mehlman and L.W. Oring. 1998. Avian movements and wetland connectivity in landscape conservation. Conservation Biology 12:749–758.
Hairston, N.G. 1949. The local distribution and ecology of the plethodontid salamanders of the southern Appalachians. Ecological Monographs 19:47–73.
Hairston, N.G. 1950. Intergradation in Appalachian salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Copeia 1950:262–273.
Hairston, N.G. 1951. Interspecific competition and its probable influence upon the vertical distribution of Appalachian salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Ecology 32:266–274.
Hairston, N.G. 1973. Ecology, selection and systematics. Breviora 414:1–21.
Hairston, N.G. 1980a. Species packing in the salamander genus Desmognathus: what are the interspecific interactions involved? American Naturalist 115:354–366.
Hairston, N.G. 1980b. The experimental test of an analysis of field distributions: competition in terrestrial salamanders. Ecology 61:817–826.
Hairston, N.G. 1980c. Evolution under interspecific competition: field experiments on terrestrial salamanders. Evolution 34:409–420.
Hairston, N.G. 1981. An experimental test of a guild: salamander competition. Ecology 62:65–72.
Hairston, N.G. 1983. Growth, survival and reproduction of Plethodon jordani: trade offs between selective pressures. Copeia 1983:1024–1035.
Hairston, N.G. 1996. Predation and competition in salamander communities. Pp. 161–189 In Cody, M.L. and J.A. Smallwood (Eds.), Long-term Studies of Vertebrate Communities. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Hairston, N.G., Sr. 1983. Growth, survival and reproduction of Plethodon jordani: trade‑offs between selective pressures. Copeia 1983:1024–1035.
Hairston, N.G., Sr. 1986. Species packing in Desmognathus salamanders: experimental demonstration of predation and competition. American Naturalist 127:266–291.
Hairston, N.G., Sr. 1987. Community Ecology and Salamander Guilds. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Hairston, N.G. and C.H. Pope. 1948. Geographic variation and speciation in Appalachian salamanders (Plethodon jordani group). Evolution 2:266–278.
Hairston, N.G., Sr. and R.H. Wiley. 1993. No decline in salamander (Amphibia: Caudata) populations: a twenty-year study in the southern Appalachians. Brimleyana 18:59–64.
Hairston, N.G., Sr., R.H. Wiley, C.K. Smith and K.A. Kneidel. 1992. The dynamics of two hybrid zones in Appalachian salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Evolution 46:930–938.
Hale, S.F. 2001. The status of the Tarahumara frog in Sonora, Mexico, based on a resurvey of selected localities and search for additional populations. Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, Arizona.
Hale, S.F. and J.L. Jarchow. 1988. The status of the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae) in the United States and Mexico: Part II. Report to the Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona, and the Office of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Hale, S.F. and C.J. May. 1983. Status report for Rana tarahumarae Boulenger. Report to the Office of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Hale, S.F., F. Retes and T.R. Van Devender. 1977. New populations of Rana tarahumarae (Tarahumara frog) in Arizona. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science 11:134–135.
Hale, S.F., G.M. Ferguson, P.A. Holm and E.B. Wirt. 1998. Re‑survey of selected Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumara) localities in northern Sonora, Mexico, in May 1998. Report to the Arizona Zoological Society and the Tarahumara Frog Conservation Team, Phoenix, Arizona.
Hale, S.F., C.R. Schwalbe, J.L. Jarchow, C.J. May, C.H. Lowe and T.B. Johnson. 1995. Disappearance of the Tarahumara frog. Pp. 138–140. In LaRoe, E.T., G.S. Farris, C.E. Puckett, P.D. Doran and M.J. Mac (Eds.), Our Living Resources. A Report to the Nation on the Distribution, Abundance, and Health of U.S. Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, D.C.
Hale, S.M. and C. Guyer. 2000. Effects of temperature and depth on burrows of the Red Hills salamander (Phaeognathus hubrichti). Herpetological Natural History 7:87–90.
Hall, B.G. 2001. Phylogenetic Trees Made Easy. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Hall, H.H. and H.M. Smith. 1947. Selected records of reptiles and amphibians from southeastern Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 49:447–454.
Hall, J.A. 1993. Post-embryonic ontogeny and larval behavior of the spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus intermontanus (Anura: Pelobatidae). Ph.D. dissertation. Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.
Hall, J.A. 1998. Scaphiopus intermontanus. Pp. 650.1–650.17. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Hall, J.A. and J.H. Larsen Jr. 1998. Postembryonic ontogeny of the spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus intermontanus (Anura: Pelobatidae): Skeletal morphology. Journal of Morphology 238:179–244.
Hall, J.A., J.H. Larsen Jr. and R.E. Fitzner. 1997. Postembryonic ontogeny of the spadefoot toad Scaphiopus intermontanus (Anura: Pelobatidae): external morphology. Herpetological Monographs 11:124–178.
Hall, J.A., J.H. Larsen Jr. and R.E. Fitzner. 2002. Morphology of the prometamorphic larva of the spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus intermontanus (Anura: Pelobatidae), with an emphasis on the lateral line system and mouthparts. Journal of Morphology 252:114–130.
Hall, J.D., M.L. Murphy and R.S. Aho. 1978. An improved design for assessing impacts of watershed practices on small streams. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung fur Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 20:1359–1365.
Hall, R.J. 1976. Summer foods of the salamander, Plethodon wehrlei (Amphibia, Urodela, Plethodontidae). Journal of Herpetology 10:129–131.
Hall, R.J. 1977. A population analysis of two species of streamside salamanders, genus Desmognathus. Herpetologica 33:109–113.
Hall, R.J. 1994. Herpetofaunal diversity of the Four Holes Swamp, South Carolina. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey, Resource Publication 198, Washington, D.C.
Hall, R.J. and P.F.P. Henry. 1992. Assessing the effects of pesticides on amphibians and reptiles: status and needs. Herpetological Journal 2:65–71.
Hall, R.J. and E. Kolbe. 1980. Bioconcentration of organophosphorus pesticides to hazardous levels by amphibians. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 6:853–860.
Hall, R.J. and D.P. Stafford. 1972. Studies in the life history of Wehrle’s salamander, Plethodon wehrlei. Herpetologica 28:300–309.
Hall, R.J. and D.M. Swineford. 1979. Uptake of methoxychlor from food and water by the American toad (Bufo americanus). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 23:335–337.
Hall, R.J. and D.M. Swineford. 1981. Acute toxicities of toxaphene and endrin to larvae of 7 species of amphibians. Toxicology Letters 8:331–336.
Hall, R.J., R.E. Ashton Jr. and R.M. Prouty. 1985. Pesticide and PCB residues in the Neuse River waterdog, Necturus lewisi. Brimleyana 10:107–109.
Halliday, T. 2000. Do frogs make good canaries? Biologist 47:143–146.
Halliday, T.R. and W.R. Heyer. 1997. The case of the vanishing frogs. Technology Review 100:53–63.
Halliday, T.R. and P.A. Verrell 1988. Body size and age in amphibians and reptiles. Journal of Herpetology 22:253–265.
Hallowell, E. 1849. Description of a new species of salamander from upper California. Proceedings of the Academy of the Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4:126.
Hallowell, E. 1852. On new genus and three new species of reptiles inhabiting North America. Proceedings of the Academy of the Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6:206–209.
Hallowell, E. 1856 (1857). Notice of a collection of reptiles from Kansas and Nebraska, presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences by Dr. Hammond. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8:238–253.
Hallowell, E. 1856. Descriptions of two new species of urodeles from Georgia. Proceedings of the Academy of the Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8:130–131.
Hallowell, E. 1858. On the caducibranchiate urodele batrachians. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3:337–366.
Hallowell, E. 1860. Report upon the Reptilia of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under command of Capt. John Rogers, U.S.N. Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences 12:480–510.
Halls, L.K. 1955. Grass production under dense longleaf-slash pine canopies. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Resarch notes, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Asheville, North Carolina.
Hamilton, A.L. 1973. Some taxonomic aspects of certain paedogenetic Eurycea of the Blanco River Drainage System in Hays and Blanco Counties, Texas. Master's thesis. Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas.
Hamilton, G.B., C.R. Peterson and W.A. Wall. 1998. Distribution and habitat relationships of amphibians on the Potlatch Corporation operating area in northern Idaho. Potlatch Corporation, Unpublished report, Lewiston, Idaho.
Hamilton, I.M., J.L. Skilnick, H. Troughton, A.P. Russell and G.L. Powell. 1998. Status of the Canadian toad (Bufo hemiophrys) in Alberta. Alberta Environmental Protection, Wildlife Management Division, and the Alberta Conservation Association, Wildlife Status Report, Number 12, Edmonton, Alberta.
Hamilton, R. 1948. The egg-laying process in the tiger salamander. Copeia 1948:212–213.
Hamilton, S.D. 1995. Biological opinion for proposed action to expand the Lost Pines Golf Course in Bastrop State Park, located in Bastrop County, Texas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Austin, Texas.
Hamilton, W.J., Jr. 1932. The food and feeding habits of some eastern salamanders. Copeia 1932:83–86.
Hamilton, W.J., Jr. 1934. The rate of growth of the toad (Bufo americanus americanus Holbrook) under natural conditions. Copeia 1934:88–90.
Hamilton, W.J. 1940. The feeding habit of larval newts with reference to availability and predilection of food items. Ecology 21:351–356.
Hamilton, W.J., Jr. 1943. Winter habits of the dusky salamander, in central New York. Copeia 1943:192.
Hamilton, W.J., Jr. 1946. Summer habitat of the yellow-barred tiger salamander. Copeia 1946:51.
Hamilton, W.J., Jr. 1948. The food and feeding behavior of the green frog, Rana clamitans Latreille, in New York state. Copeia 1948:203–207.
Hamilton, W.J., Jr. 1950. Notes on the food of the congo eel, Amphiuma. Natural History Miscellanea, Number 62, Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chicago, Illinois.
Hamilton, W.J. 1951. The food and feeding of the garter snake in New York State. American Midland Naturalist 46:385–390.
Hamilton, W.J. 1954. The economic status of the toad. Herpetologica 10:37–40.
Hamilton, W.J. 1955. Notes on the ecology of the oak toad in Florida. Herpetologica 11:205–210.
Hamilton, W.J. and J.A. Pollack. 1955. The food of some crotalid snakes from Fort Benning, Georgia. Natural History Miscellanea, Number 140, Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chicago, Illinois.
Hamilton, W.J. and J.A. Pollack. 1956. The food of some colubrid snakes from Fort Benning, Georgia. Ecology 37:519–526.
Hammen, C.S. and V.H. Hutchison. 1962. Carbon dioxide assimilation in the symbiosis of the salamander, Ambystoma maculatum and the alga Oophila amblystomatis. Life Sciences 10:527–532.
Hammerson, G.A. 1980. Geographic distribution: Gastrophryne olivacea (Great Plains narrowmouth toad). Herpetological Review 11:13–14.
Hammerson, G.A. 1982a. Amphibians and Reptiles in Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife Publication, DOW-M-I-27-82, Denver, Colorado.
Hammerson, G.A. 1982b. Bullfrog eliminating leopard frogs in Colorado? Herpetological Review 13:115–116.
Hammerson, G.A. 1986. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, Colorado.
Hammerson, G.A. 1992. Field surveys of amphibians in the mountains of Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Unpublished report, Denver, Colorado.
Hammerson, G.A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. Second edition. Colorado Division of Wildlife Publication, University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado.
Hammerson, G.A. and L.J. Livo. 1999. Conservation status of the northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) in Colorado and adjacent areas in the northwestern edge of its range. Herpetological Review 30:78–80.
Hammett, J.E. 1992. The shapes of adaptation: historical ecology of anthropogenic landscapes in the Southeastern United States. Landscape Ecology 7:121–135.
Hammond, P. 1992. Species inventory. Pp. 17–39. In Broombridge, B. (Ed.), Global Biodiversity, Status of the Earth's Living Resources. Chapman and Hall, London.
Hammond, P. 1995. Magnitude and distribution of biodiversity: the current magnitude of biodiversity. Pp. 113–138. In Heywood, V. (Ed.), Global Biodiversity Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Hamning, V.K., H.L. Yanites and N.L. Peterson. 2000. Characterization of adhesive and neurotoxic components in skin granular gland secretions of Ambystoma tigrinum. Copeia 2000:856–859.
Hanemann, W.M. 1989. Information and the concept of option value. Journal of Environmental Econonomics 16:23–37.
Hanifin, C.T., M. Yotsu-Yamashita, E.D. Brodie III and E.D. Brodie Jr. 1999. Toxicity of dangerous prey: variation of tetrodotoxin levels within and among populations of the newt Taricha granulosa. Journal of Chemical Ecology 25:2161–2175.
Hanken, J. 1999. Why are there so many new amphibian species when amphibians are declining? TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 14:7–8.
Hanlin, H.G. 1978. Food habits of the greater siren, Siren lacertina, in an Alabama coastal plain pond. Copeia 1978:358–360.
Hanlin, H.G., J.J. Beatty and S.W. Hanlin. 1979. A nest site of the western red-backed salamander Plethodon vehiculum (Cooper). Journal of Herpetology 13:214–215.
Hanlin, H.G., F.D. Martin, L.D. Wike and S.H. Bennett. 2000. Terrestrial activity, abundance and species richness of amphibians in managed forests in South Carolina. American Midland Naturalist 143:70–83.
Hanna, G.D. 1966. Introduced mollusks of western North America. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, Number 48, San Francisco, California.
Hansen, K.L. 1957. Movements, area of activity, and growth of Rana heckscheri. Copeia 1957:274–277.
Hansen, K.L. 1958. Breeding pattern of the eastern spadefoot toad. Herpetologica 14:57–67.
Hansen, R., D. Chamberlain and M. Lechner. 1998. Final environmental assessment/habitat conservation plan for issuance of a section 10(a)(1)(B) permit for incidental take of the Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sosorum) for the operation and maintenance of Barton Springs Pool and adjacent springs. City of Austin and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Austin, Texas.
Hansen, R.W. 1980. The Kern Plateau herpetofauna: a preliminary survey. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Unpublished report, Sequoia National Forest, Porterville, California.
Hansen, R.W. 1988. Kern Canyon slender salamander (Batrachoseps simatus). California Department of Transportation, Biological Survey Report, District 6, Fresno, California.
Hansen, R.W. 1990. Life history notes: Hydromantes platycephalus (Mount Lyell salamander). Toxicity. Herpetological Review 25:62.
Hansen, R.W. 1997. Salamander diversity in the Kern Valley region. Kern River Research Center Fieldnotes 6:1, 3.
Hansen, R.W. and R. Stafford. 1994a. Kern Canyon slender salamander. Pp. 252–253. In Thelander, C.G. (Ed.), Life on the Edge. Biosystems Books, Santa Cruz, California.
Hansen, R.W. and R. Stafford. 1994b. Tehachapi slender salamander. Pp. 254–255. In Thelander, C.G. (Ed.), Life on the Edge, Biosystems Books, Santa Cruz, California.
Hanski, I. and M. Gilpin. 1991. Metapopulation dynamics: brief history and conceptual domain. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 42:3–16.
Hanski, I.A. and M.E. Gilpin (Eds.). 1997. Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Hanski, I., P. Turchin, E. Korpimaki and H. Henttonen. 1993. Population oscillations of boreal rodents: regulation by mustelid predators leads to chaos. Nature 364:232–235.
Hanson, J.A. and J.L. Vial. 1956. Defensive behavior and effects of toxins in Bufo alvarius. Herpetologica 12:141–149.
Hanson, K., J. Snyder and L. Kats. 1994. Natural history notes: Taricha torosa (California newt). Diet. Herpetological Review 25:62.
Hardin, E.D. and D.L. White. 1989. Rare vascular plant taxa associated with wiregrass (Aristida stricta) in the southeastern United States. Natural Areas Journal 9:234–245.
Hardin, E.L. and J. Janovy. 1988. Population dynamics of Distoichometra bufonis (Cestoda: Nematotaeniidae) in Bufo woodhousii. Journal of Parasitology 74:360–365.
Hardin, J.W., J.P. Schafer and R.W. Barbour. 1969. Observations on the activity of a seal salamander, Desmognathus monticola. Herpetologica 25:150–151.
Harding, J.H. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Harding, J.H. and J.A. Holman. 1992. Michigan Frogs, Toads, and Salamanders. A Field Guide and Pocket Reference. Michigan State University Museum Press, East Lansing, Michigan.
Hardy, J.D., Jr. 1952. A concentration of juvenile spotted salamanders Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw). Copeia 1952:181.
Hardy, J.D., Jr. 1953. Notes on the distribution of Microhyla carolinensis in southern Maryland. Herpetologica 8:162–166.
Hardy, J.D., Jr. 1964. A new frog, Rana palustris mansuetii, subsp. Nov. from the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Chesapeake Scientist 5:91–100.
Hardy, J.D., Jr. 1969a. A summary of recent studies on the salamander, Ambystoma mabeei. Natural Resources Institute, Unpublished report, Reference Number 69–30, University of Maryland, Solomons, Maryland.
Hardy, J.D. 1969b. Reproductive activity, growth, and movements of Ambystoma mabeei Bishop in North Carolina. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 5:65–76.
Hardy, J.D., Jr. 1972. Amphibians of the Chesapeake Bay region. Chesapeake Science 13:123–128.
Hardy, J.D., Jr. and J.D. Anderson. 1970. Ambystoma mabeei. Pp. 81.1–81.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Hardy, J.D. and J.H. Gillespie. 1976. Hybridization between Rana pipiens and Rana palustris in a modified natural environment. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 12:41–53.
Hardy, L.M. and M.C. Lucas. 1991. A crystalline protein is responsible for dimorphic egg jellies in the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw) (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 100:653–660.
Hardy, L.M. and R.W. McDiarmid. 1969. The amphibians and reptiles of Sinaloa, Mexico. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 18:39–252.
Hardy, L.M. and L.R. Raymond. 1980. The breeding migrations of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, in Louisiana. Journal of Herpetology 14:327–335.
Hardy, L.M. and L.R. Raymond. 1991. Observations on the activity of the pickerel frog, Rana palustris (Anura: Ranidae), in northern Louisiana. Journal of Herpetology 25:220–222.
Harestad, A.S. 1985. Life history notes: Scaphiopus intermontanus (Great Basin spadefoot toad). Mortality. Herpetological Review 16:24.
Harfenist, A., T. Power, K.L. Clark and D.B. Peakall. 1989. A review and evaluation of the amphibian toxicological literature. Canadian Wildlife Service, Technical Report, Series Number 61, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Hargis, C.D., J.A. Bissonette and J.L. David. 1998. The behavior of landscape metrics commonly used in the study of habitat fragmentation. Landscape Ecology 13:167–186.
Hargitt, C.W. 1892. On some habits of Amphiuma means. Science 20:159.
Harker, D.F., Jr., M.E. Medley, W.C. Houtcooper and A. Phillippi. 1980. Kentucky Natural Areas Plan: Appendix A. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, Kentucky.
Harlan, R. 1825a. Further observations on the Amphiuma means. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 1:269–270.
Harlan, R. 1825b. Description of a variety of the Coluber fulvius, Linn., a new species of Scincus, and two new species of Salamandra. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5:154–158.
Harlan, R. 1826a. Notice of a new species of salamander (inhabiting Pennsylvania). American Journal of Science and Arts 10:286–287.
Harlan, R. 1826b. Genera of North American Reptilia, and a synopsis of the species. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5:317–372.
Harlan, R. 1835. Medical and Physical Researches, Philadelphia. Lydia R. Bailey, Philadelphia.
Harman, W.J. and A.R. Lawler. 1975. Dero (Allodero) hylidae, an oligochaete symbiont in hylid frogs in Mississippi. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 94:38–42.
Harman, W.N. 1974. Snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Pp. 275–312. In Hart, C.W., Jr. and S.L.H. Fuller (Eds.), Pollution Ecology of Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, New York.
Harman, W.N. and J.L. Forney. 1970. Fifty years of change in the molluscan fauna of Oneida Lake, New York. Limnology and Oceanography 15:454–460.
Harper, C.A. and D.C. Guynn Jr. 1999. Factors affecting salamander density and distribution within four forest types in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Forest Ecology and Management 114:245–252.
Harper, F. 1928. Voices of New England toads. Bulletin of the Boston Society of Natural History 46:3–9.
Harper, F. 1931. A dweller in the piney woods. Science Monthly 32:176–181.
Harper, F. 1932. A voice from the pines. Natural History Magazine 32:280–288.
Harper, F. 1935. Records of amphibians in the southeastern states. American Midland Naturalist 16:275–310.
Harper, F. 1937. A season with Holbrook’s chorus frog (Pseudacris ornata). American Midland Naturalist 18:260–272.
Harper, F. 1939. Distribution, taxonomy, nomenclature, and habits of the little treefrog (Hyla ocularis). American Midland Naturalist 22:134–149.
Harper, F. 1955. A new chorus frog (Pseudacris) from the eastern United States. Natural History Miscellanea, Number 150, Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chicago, Illinois.
Harper, S. 1994. Golf course plan has many hopping mad. Houston Post, 6 February.
Harris, A.J. 1975. Seasonal activity and microhabitat utilization in Hyla cadaverina (Anura: Hylidae). Herpetologica 31:236–239.
Harris, H.S., Jr. 1975. Distributional survey (Amphibia/Reptilia): Maryland and the District of Columbia. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 11:73–167.
Harris, H.S., Jr. and D.J. Lyons. 1968. The first record of the green salamander Aneides aeneus (Cope and Packard) in Maryland. Journal of Herpetology 1:106–107.
Harris, J.P., Jr. 1959a. The natural history of Necturus: I. Habitats and habits. Field and Laboratory 27:11–20.
Harris, J.P., Jr. 1959b. The natural history of Necturus: III. Food and feeding. Field and Laboratory 27:105–111.
Harris, J.P., Jr. 1959c. The natural history of Necturus: IV. Reproduction. Journal of the Graduate Research Center 28:69–81.
Harris, M.L., L. Chora, C.A. Bishop and J.P. Bogart. 2000. Species- and age-related differences in susceptibility to pesticide exposure for two amphibians, Rana pipiens, and Bufo americanus. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 64:263–270.
Harris, P.M. 1995. Are autecologically similar species also functionally similar? A test in pond communities. Ecology 76:544–552.
Harris, R.N. 1980. The consequences of within-year timing of breeding in Ambystoma maculatum. Copeia 1980:719–722.
Harris, R.N. 1981. Intrapond homing behavior in Notophthalmus viridescens. Journal of Herpetology 15:355–356.
Harris, R.N. 1984. Transplant experiments with Ambystoma larvae. Copeia 1984:161–169.
Harris, R.N. 1987a. Density-dependent paedomorphosis in the salamander Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalis. Ecology 68:705–712.
Harris, R.N. 1987b. An experimental study of population regulation in the salamander, Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalis (Urodela: Salamandridae). Oecologia 71:280–285.
Harris, R.N. 1989. Ontogenetic changes in size and shape of the facultatively paedomorphic salamander Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalis. Copeia 1989:35–42.
Harris, R.N. and D.E. Gill. 1980. Communal nesting, brooding behavior, and embryonic survival of the four-toed salamander Hemidactylium scutatum. Herpetologica 36:141–144.
Harris, R.N., R.A. Alford and H.M. Wilbur. 1988. Density and phenology of Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalis in a natural pond. Herpetologica 44:234–242.
Harris, R.N., T.J. Vess, J.I. Hammond and C.J. Lindermuth. 2003. Context-dependent kin discrimination in larval four-toed salamanders Hemidactylium scutatum (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Herpetologica 59:164–177.
Harris, R.N., W.W. Hames, I.T. Knight, C.A. Carreno and T.J. Vess. 1995. An experimental analysis of joint nesting in the salamander Hemidactylium scutatum (Caudata: Plethodontidae): the effects of population density. Animal Behaviour 50:1309–1316.
Harrison, J.R. 1963. Variation in pygmy species of the genus Desmognathus (Urodela: Plethodontidae). Ph.D. dissertation. University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana.
Harrison, J.R. 1967. Observations on the life history, ecology, and distribution of Desmognathus aeneus aeneus Brown and Bishop. American Midland Naturalist 77:356–370.
Harrison, J.R. 1973. Observations of the life history and ecology of Eurycea quadridigitata (Holbrook). Herpetological Information Search Systems News-Journal 1:57–58.
Harrison, J.R. 1992. Desmognathus aeneus. Pp. 534:1–534.4. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Harrison, J.R., III and S.I. Guttman. 2003. A new species of Eurycea (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from North and South Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist 2:159–178.
Harrison, S. and N. Cappuccino. 1995. Using density-manipulation experiments to study population regulation. Pp. 131–147. In Cappuccino, N. and P.W. Price (Eds), Population Dynamics: New Approaches and Synthesis. Academic Press, New York.
Harte, J. and E. Hoffman. 1989. Possible effects of acidic deposition on a Rocky Mountain population of the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. Conservation Biology 3:149–158.
Harte, J. and E. Hoffman. 1994. Acidification and salamander recruitment. Bioscience 44:126.
Hartman, M.R. 1994. Avian use of restored and natural wetlands in north-central Indiana. Master's thesis. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
Hartman, M.T. 1906. Food habits of Kansas lizards and batrachians. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 20:225–229.
Harvey, T. 1997. Fore! Lost Pines opens nine new holes. Bastrop Advertiser, 14 August.
Harwood, P.D. 1930. A new species of Oxysomatium (Nematoda) with some remarks on the genera Oxysomatium and Aplectana and observations on the life history. Journal of Parasitology 17:61–73.
Harwood, P.D. 1932. The helminths parasitic in the Amphibia and Reptilia of Houston, Texas, and vicinity. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, Number 81, Article 17, Washington, D.C.
Hasegawa, H. and M. Otsuru. 1977. Life cycle of a frog nematode, Spinitectus ranae Morishita, 1926 (Cystidicolidae). Japanese Journal of Parasitology 26:336–344.
Hasegawa, H. and M. Otsuru. 1978. Notes on the life cycle of Spiroxys japonica Morishita, 1926 (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae). Japanese Journal of Parasitology 27:113–122.
Hasegawa, H. and M. Otsuru. 1979. Life history of an amphibian nematode, Hedrurus ijimai Morishita, 1926 (Hedruridae). Japanese Journal of Parasitology 28:89–97.
Hasegawa, Y., H. Ueda and M. Sumida. 1999. Clinal geographic variation in the advertisement call of the wrinkled frog, Rana rugosa. Herpetologica 55:318–324.
Hassell, M.P. 1986. Detecting density dependence. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 1:90–93.
Hassinger, D.D. and J.D. Anderson. 1970. The effect of lunar eclipse on nocturnal stratification of larval Ambystoma opacum. Copeia 1970:178–179.
Hassinger, D.D., J.D. Anderson and G.H. Dalrymple. 1970. The early life history and ecology of Ambystoma tigrinum and Ambystoma opacum in New Jersey. American Midland Naturalist 84:474–495.
Hassler, W.G. 1932. New locality records of two salamanders and a snake in Cattaraugus County, New York. Copeia 1932:94–96.
Hastings, F.L., R.A. Werner, P.J. Shea and E.H. Holston. 1998. Persistence of carbaryl within boreal, temperate and Mediterranean ecosystems. Journal of Economic Entomology 91:665–670.
Hatch, A. and G.A. Burton Jr. 1998. Effects of photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene on amphibian embryos and larvae. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:1777–1785.
Hatch, A.C., L.K. Belden, E. Scheessele and A.R. Blaustein. 2001. Juvenile amphibians do not avoid potentially lethal levels of urea on soil substrate. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:2328–2335.
Hathaway, E.S. 1928. Quantitative study of the changes produced by acclimatization on the tolerance of high temperatures by fishes and amphibians. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries 43:169–192.
Haurwitz, R.K.M. 2000. How politics ran over the toad. Austin American-Statesman, 16 May.
Hausfater, G., H.C. Gerhardt and G.M. Klump. 1990. Parasites and mate choice in gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor. American Zoologist 30:299–311.
Hauwert, N.M., D.A. Johns and T.J. Aley. 1998. Preliminary report on groundwater tracing studies within the Barton Creek and Williamson Creek watersheds, Barton Springs/Edwards Aquifer. Barton Springs/Edwards Aquifer Conservation District and City of Austin Watershed Protection Department, Austin, Texas.
Haverkos, H.W. 1996. Is Kaposi's sarcoma caused by a new herpesvirus? Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 50:318–319.
Hawkins, C.P., L.J. Gottschalk and S.S. Brown. 1988. Densities and habitat of tailed frog tadpoles in small streams near Mt. St. Helens following the 1980 eruption. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 7:246–252.
Hawkins, C.P., M.L. Murphy, N.H. Anderson and M.A. Wilzbach. 1983. Density of fish and salamanders in relation to riparian canopy and physical habitat in streams of the northwestern United States. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40:1173–1185.
Hay, O.P. 1888. Observations on Amphiuma and its young. American Naturalist 22:315–321.
Hay, O.P. 1892. The batrachians and reptiles of the state of Indiana. Annual Report of the Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources 17:412–602.
Hay, R. 1998a. Blanchard’s cricket frog (Acris crepitans blanchardi) in Wisconsin: a vanishing species. P. 10. In Abstracts, Midwest Declining Amphibians Conference, March 20–21. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Hay, R. 1998b. Blanchard's cricket frogs in Wisconsin: a status report. Pp. 79–82. In Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Hay, W.P. 1902. A list of the Batrachia and Reptilia of the District of Columbia and vicinity. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 15:128.
Hayek, L.C. 1994. Research design for quantitative amphibian studies. Pp. 21–39. In Heyer, W.R., M.A. Donnelly, R.W. McDiarmid, L.C. Hayek and M.S. Foster (Eds.), Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods For Amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Hayek, L.C. and R.W. McDiarmid. 1994. Geographic information systems. Pp. 166–171. In W.R. Heyer, M.A. Donnelly, R.W. McDiarmid, L.C. Hayek and M.S. Foster (Eds.), Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Hayes, F.E. 1989. Antipredator behavior of recently metamorphosed toads (Bufo a. americanus) during encounters with garter sakes (Thamnophis s. sirtalis). Copeia 1989:1011–1015.
Hayes, M.C. and M.R. Jennings. 1989. Habitat correlates of distribution of the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) and the foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii): implications for management. Pp. 144–158. In Szaro, R.E., K.E. Severson and D.R. Patton (Tech. Coords.), Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals of North America, Proceedings of the symposium on 19–21 July 1998. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, General Technical Report, RM-166, Flagstaff, Arizona.
Hayes, M.P. 1994. The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) in western Oregon. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Technical Report, Number 94-1-01, Portland, Oregon.
Hayes, M.P. 1996. Assessment of the sensitive amphibian and reptile fauna of the proposed Squaw Flat Research Natural Area. Umpqua National Forest under subcontract to Resources Northwest Incorporated, Final report, Kirkland, Washington.
Hayes, M.P. 1997. Status of the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) in the Deschutes Basin and selected other systems in Oregon and northeastern California with a rangewide synopsis of the species’ status. Nature Conservancy under contract to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service with assistance from the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Final report, Portland, Oregon.
Hayes, M.P. and F.S. Cliff. 1982. A checklist of the herpetofauna of Butte County, the Butte Sink, and Sutter Buttes, California. Herpetological Review 13:85–87.
Hayes, M.P. and C.B. Hayes. 2003. Natural history notes: Rana aurora aurora (northern red-legged frog). Juvenile growth; male size at maturity. Herpetological Review 34:233–234.
Hayes, M.P. and M.R. Jennings. 1986. Decline of ranid frog species in western North America: are bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) responsible? Journal of Herpetology 20:490–509.
Hayes, M.P. and M.R. Jennings. 1988. Habitat correlates of distribution of the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) and the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii): implications for management. Pp. 144–158. In Szaro, R.C., K.E. Severson and D.R. Patton (Tech. Coords.), Management of Amphibians, Reptiles and Small Mammals in North America. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report RM-166, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Hayes, M.P. and M.M. Miyamoto. 1984. Biochemical, behavioral and body size differences between the red-legged frogs, Rana aurora aurora and Rana aurora draytonii. Copeia 1984:1018–1022.
Hayes, M.P. and F.C. Schaffner. 1986. Life history notes: Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog). Predation. Herpetological Review 17:44–45.
Hayes, M.P. and M.R. Tennant. 1985. Diet and feeding behavior of the California red-legged frog, Rana aurora draytonii (Ranidae). Southwestern Naturalist 30:601–605.
Hayes, M.P. and J. Warner. 1985. Life history notes: Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog). Food. Herpetological Review 16:109.
Hayes, M.P. and P.N. Lahanas. 1987. Nesting of the aquatic salamander Amphiuma means. Florida Scientist 50 (Supplement 1):16 (Abstract).
Hayes, M.P., C.A. Pearl and C.J. Rombough. 2002. Natural history notes: Rana aurora aurora (northern red-legged frog). Movement. Herpetological Review 32:35–36.
Hayes, M.P., J.D. Engler, S. Van Leuven, D.C. Friesz, T. Quinn and D.J. Pierce. 2001. Overwintering of the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) at Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Klickitat County, Washington, 2000–2001. Washington Department of Transportation, Final report, Olympia, Washington.
Hayes, M.P., J.D. Engler, R.D. Haycock, D.H. Knopp, W.P. Leonard, K.R. McAllister and L.L. Todd. 1997. Status of the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) across its geographic range. Oregon Chapter of The Wildlife Society, Corvallis, Oregon.
Hayes, T., K. Haston, M. Tsui, A. Hoang, C. Haeffle and A. Vonk. 2002b. Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in American leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): laboratory and field evidence. Environmental Health Perspectives doi:10.1289/ehp.5932.
Hayes, T., K. Haston, M. Tsui, A. Hoang, C. Haeffle and A. Vonk. 2002c. Feminization of male frogs in the wild. Water-borne herbicide threatens amphibian populations in parts of the United States. Nature 419:895–896.
Hayes, T.B., A. Collins, M. Lee, M. Mendoza, N. Noriegs, A.A. Stuart and A. Vonk. 2002a. Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99:5476–5480.
Hayes-Odum, L.A. 1990. Observations on reproduction and embryonic development in Syrrhophus cystignathoides campi (Anura: Leptodactylidae). Southwestern Naturalist 35:358–361.
Hays, J.B., A.R. Blaustein, J.M. Kiesecker, P.D. Hoffman, I. Pandelova, D. Coyle and T. Richardson. 1996. Developmental responses of amphibians to solar and artificial UV-B sources: a comparative study. Photochemistry and Photobiology 64:449–456.
Healy, W.R. 1970. Reduction of neoteny in Massachusetts populations of Notophthalmus viridescens. Copeia 1970:578–581.
Healy, W.R. 1973. Life history variation and growth of juvenile Notophthalmus viridescens from Massachusetts. Copeia 1973:641–647.
Healy, W.R. 1974. Population consequences of alternative life histories in Notophthalmus v. viridescens. Copeia 1974:221–229.
Healy, W.R. 1975a. Terrestrial activity and home range in efts of Notophthalmus viridescens. American Midland Naturalist 93:131–138.
Healy, W.R. 1975b. Breeding and post larval migrations of the red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens, in Massachusetts. Ecology 56:673–680.
Hearnden, M. 1991. The reproductive and larval ecology of Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae). Ph.D. dissertation. James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.
Heath, A.G. 1975. Behavioral thermoregulation in high altitude tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum. Herpetologica 31:84–93.
Heath, D.R., D.A. Saugey and G.A. Heidt. 1986. Abandoned mine fauna of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas: vertebrate taxa. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 40:33–36.
Heatwole, H. 1960. Burrowing ability and behavioral responses to desiccation of the salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Ecology 41:661–668.
Heatwole, H. 1961a. Habitat selection and activity of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica LeConte. American Midland Naturalist 66:301–313.
Heatwole, H. 1961b. Rates of desiccation and rehydration of eggs in a terrestrial salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Copeia 1961:110–112.
Heatwole, H. 1962. Environmental factors influencing local distribution and activity of the salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Ecology 43:460–472.
Heatwole, H. and A. Heatwole. 1968. Motivational aspects of feeding behavior in toads. Copeia 1968:692–698.
Heatwole, H. and K. Lim. 1961. Relation of substrate moisture to absorption and loss of water by the salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Ecology 41:661–668.
Heatwole, H. and R.C. Newby. 1972. Interaction of internal rhythm and loss of body water in influencing activity levels of amphibians. Herpetologica 28:156–162.
Heatwole, H. and F.H. Test. 1961. Cannibalism in the salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Herpetologica 17:143.
Heatwole, H., S.B. de Austin and R. Herrero. 1968. Heat tolerances of tadpoles of two species of tropical anurans. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 27:807–815.
Heatwole, H., N. Poran and P. King. 1999. Ontogenetic changes in the resistance of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to the venom of copperheads (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix) and cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus). Copeia 1999:808–814.
Hebard, W.B. and R.B. Brunson. 1963. Hind limb anomalies of a western Montana population of the Pacific tree frog, Hyla regilla Baird and Girard. Copeia 1963:570–572.
Hebb, E.A. 1971. Site preparation decreases game food plants in Florida sandhills. Journal of Wildlife Management 35:155–162.
Hecht, M.K. 1958. A synopsis of the mudpuppies of eastern North America. Proceedings of the Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences 21:4–38.
Hecht, M.K. and B.L. Matalas. 1946. A review of middle North American toads of the genus Microhyla. American Museum Novitates, Number 1315, American Museum of Natural History, New York.
Hecker, L., D.M. Madison, R.W. Dapson and V. Holzherr. 2003. Presence of modified serous glands in the caudal integument of the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Journal of Herpetology 37:732–726.
Heckscher, C.M. 1995. Distribution and habitat associations of the eastern mud salamander, Pseudotriton montanus montanus, on the Delmarva Peninsula. Maryland Naturalist 39:11–14.
Hecnar, S.J. 1995. Acute and chronic toxicity of ammonium nitrate fertilizer to amphibians from southern Ontario. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 14:2131–2137.
Hecnar, S.J. 1997. Amphibian pond communities in southwestern Ontario. Pp. 1–15. In Green, D.M. (Ed.), Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. Herpetological Conservation, Number 1, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Hecnar, S.J. and D.R. Hecnar. 1999. Natural history notes: Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus frog). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 30:38.
Hecnar, S.J. and R.T. M’Closkey. 1996. Regional dynamics and the status of amphibians. Ecology 77:2091–2097.
Hecnar, S.J. and R.T. M’Closkey. 1997. Changes in the composition of a ranid frog community following bullfrog extinction. American Midland Naturalist 137:145–150.
Hedeen, S.E. 1967. Feeding behavior of the great blue heron in Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Loon 39:116–120.
Hedeen, S.E. 1970. Summer food habits of Rana septentrionalis and sympatric Rana pipiens in Minnesota. Herpetological Review 2:6.
Hedeen, S.E. 1971a. Growth of the tadpoles of the mink frog, Rana septentrionalis. Herpetologica 27:160–165.
Hedeen, S.E. 1971b. Body temperatures of the mink frog, Rana septentrionalis Baird. Journal of Herpetology 5:211–212.
Hedeen, S.E. 1972a. Escape behavior and causes of death of the mink frog, Rana septentrionalis. Herpetologica 28:261–262.
Hedeen, S.E. 1972b. Food and feeding behavior of the mink frog, Rana septentrionalis Baird, in Minnesota. American Midland Naturalist 88:291–300.
Hedeen, S.E. 1972c. Postmetamorphic growth and reproduction of the mink frog, Rana septentrionalis Baird. Copeia 1972:169–175.
Hedeen, S.E. 1977. Rana septentrionalis. Pp. 202:1–202.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Hedeen, S.E. 1986. The southern geographic limit of the mink frog, Rana septentrionalis. Copeia 1986:239–244.
Hedgecock, D. 1976. Genetic variation in two widespread species of salamanders, Taricha granulosa and Taricha torosa. Biochemical Genetics 14:561–576.
Hedgecock, D. 1978. Population subdivision and genetic divergence in the red-bellied newt, Taricha rivularis. Evolution 32:271–286.
Hedgecock, D. and F.J. Ayala. 1974. Evolutionary divergence in the genus Taricha (Salamandridae). Copeia 1974:738–747.
Hedges, S.B. 1989. Evolution and biogeography of West Indian frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus: slow evolving loci and the major groups. Pp. 305–370. In Woods, C.A. (Ed.), Biogeography of the West Indies: Past, Present and Future. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida.
Hedges, S.B. 1993. Global amphibian declines: a perspective from the Caribbean. Biodiversity and Conservation 2:290–303.
Hedges, S.B. 1996. The origin of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Pp. 95–128. In Powell, R. and R.W. Henderson (Eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz. Contributions to Herpetology, Volume 12, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
Hedges, S.B. 1999. Distributional patterns of amphibians in the West Indies. Pp. 211–254. In Duellman, W.E. (Ed.), Patterns of Distribution in Amphibians. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
Hefner, J.M. and J.D. Brown. 1985. Wetland trends in the southeastern United States. Wetlands 4:1–11.
Heinen, J.T. 1985. Cryptic behavior in juvenile toads. Journal of Herpetology 19:524–527.
Heinen, J.T. 1993a. Aggregations of newly metamorphosed Bufo americanus: tests of two hypotheses. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:334–338.
Heinen, J.T. 1993b. Substrate choice and predation risk in newly metamorphosed American toads (Bufo americanus): an experimental analysis. American Midland Naturalist 130:184–192.
Heinen, J.T. 1994. Antipredator behavior of newly metamorphosed American toads (Bufo a. americanus), and mechanisms of hunting by eastern garter snakes (Thamnophis s. sirtalis). Herpetologica 50:137–145.
Heinen, J.T. 1995. Predator cues and prey responses: a test using eastern garter snakes (Thamnophis s. sirtalis) and American toads (Bufo a. americanus). Copeia 1995:738–741.
Heinen, J.T. and G. Hammond. 1997. Antipredator behaviors of newly metamorphosed green frogs (Rana clamitans) and leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) in encounters with eastern garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis). American Midland Naturalist 137:136–144.
Heinrich, J.H. 1996. August 1995 Oasis Valley Area surveys for the Amargosa toad, Bufo nelsoni. Nevada Division of Wildlife, Las Vegas, Nevada (available from Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Carson City, Nevada).
Heinrich, M.L. 1985. Life history notes: Pseudacris triseriata triseriata (western chorus frog). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 16:24.
Heinzel, S.J. and C.R. Rossell Jr. 1995. A new record of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, in Buncombe County, North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 111:130–131.
Helfer, J.R. 1949. Two new cestodes from salamanders. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 67:359–364.
Helfert, S. 1996. Withdrawal of proposed rule to list the Barton Springs salamander as endangered. Federal Register 61:46608–46616.
Helfrich, L.A., D.J. Orth and R.J. Neves. 1997. Freshwater fish farming in Virginia: selecting the right fish to raise. Virginia Cooperative Extension Service, Publication Number 420-101, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Helgen, J. 1996. The frogs of Granite Falls: frogs as biological indicators. Pp. 55–57. In Moriarty, J.J. and D. Jones (Eds.), Minnesota's Amphibians and Reptiles: Their Conservation and Status, Proceedings of a Symposium. Serpent's Tale Press, Excelsior, Minnesota.
Helgen, J., R.G. McKinnell and M.C. Gernes. 1998. Investigation of malformed northern leopard frogs in Minnesota. Pp. 288–297. In Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Helgen, J.C., M.C. Gernes, S.M. Kersten, J.W. Chirhart, J.T. Canfield, D. Bowers, R.G. McKinnel and D.M. Hoppe. 2000. Field investigation of malformed frogs in Minnesota 1993–1997. Pp. 96–112. In Kaiser, H., G.S. Casper and N. Bernstein (Eds.), Investigating Amphibian Declines: Proceedings of the 1998 Midwest Declining Amphibians Conference. Iowa Academy of Science, Volume 107, Cedar Falls, Iowa.
Helgen, J.C., M.C. Gernes, S.M. Kersten, J.W. Chirhart, J.T. Canfield, D. Bowers, J.Hafernan, R.G. McKinnell and D.M. Hoppe. 2000. Field investigations of malformed frogs in Minnesota 1993–97. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science 107:96–112.
Hellman, R.E. 1953. A comparative study of the eggs and tadpoles of Hyla phaeocrypta and Hyla versicolor in Florida. Publications of Ross Allen's Reptile Institute 1:61–74.
Helms, D.R. 1967. Use of formalin for selective control of tadpoles in the presence of fishes. Progressive Fish-Culturist 29:43–47.
Hemesath, L.M. 1998. Iowa’s frog and toad survey, 1991–1994. Pp. 206–216. In Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Hemmer, H. and J.A. Alcover (Eds.). 1984. Història Biològica del Ferreret. Editorial Moll, Palma de Mallorca, Mallorca.
Hemphill, D.V. 1952. The vertebrate fauna of the boreal areas of the southern Yolla Bolly Mountains, California. Ph.D. dissertation. Oregon State College, Corvallis, Oregon.
Hemphill, N. and S.D. Cooper. 1984. Differences in the community structure of stream pools containing or lacking trout. International Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie, Verhandlungen 22:1858–1861.
Henderson, G.G. 1961. Reproductive potential of Microhyla olivacea. Texas Journal of Science 13:355–357.
Hendricks, F.S. 1973. Intestinal contents of Rana pipiens Schreber (Ranidae) larvae. Southwestern Naturalist 18:99–101.
Hendricks, L.J. and J. Kezer. 1958. An unusual population of a blind cave salamander and its fluctuation during one year. Herpetologica 14:41–43.
Hendrickson, H.T. 1974. Geographic distribution: Hyla squirella (squirrel treefrog). Herpetological Review 5:107.
Hendrickson, J.R. 1954. Ecology and systematics of salamanders of the genus Batrachoseps. University of California Publications in Zoology, Number 54, Berkeley, California.
Henle, K. 1995. Biodiversity, people, and a set of important connected questions. Pp. 162–174. In Saunders, D., J. Craig and L. Mattiske (Eds.), Nature Conservation 4: The Role of Networks. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Henle, K. and K. Rimpp. 1993. Überleben von Amphibien und Reptilien in Metapopulationen-Ergebnisse einer 26-jährigen Erfassung. Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Ökologie 22:215–220.
Henle, K. and K. Rimpp. 1994. Ergebnisse einer 26-jährigen Erfassung der Herpetofauna in der Umgebung von Rutesheim und Renningen, Kreis Böblingen, Baden-Württemberg. Jahreshefte der Gesellschaft für Naturkunde in Württemberg 150:193–221.
Henle, K. and B. Streit. 1990. Kritische Bemerkungen zum Artenrückgang bei Amphibien und Reptilien und dessen Ursachen. Natur und Landschaft 65:347–361.
Henrard, J.B. 1968. On the occurrence of Helisoma anceps (Menke) in Italy. Basteria 32:2–3.
Henrich, T.W. 1968. Morphological evidence of secondary intergradation between Bufo hemiophrys Cope and Bufo americanus Holbrook in eastern South Dakota. Herpetologica 24:1–13.
Henry, W.V. and V.C. Twitty. 1940. Contributions to the life histories of Dicamptodon ensatus and Ambystoma gracile. Copeia 1940:247–250.
Hensel, J.L., Jr. and E.D. Brodie Jr. 1976. An experimental study of aposomatic coloration in the salamander Plethodon jordani. Copeia 1976:59–65.
Hensher, D. and L.W. Johnson. 1981. Applied Discrete Choice Modelling. Croom Helm, London, England.
Hensley, M. 1959. Albinism in North American amphibians and reptiles. Pp. 135–139. In Publications of the Museum of Michigan State University, Series 1, East Lansing, Michigan.
Hensley, M. 1964. The tiger salamander in northern Michigan. Herpetologica 20:203–204.
Hepher, B. and Y. Pruginin. 1981. Commercial Fish Farming. With Special Reference to Fish Culture in Israel. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Herbeck, L.A. and D.R. Larsen. 1999. Plethodontid salamander response to silvicultural practices in Missouri Ozark forests. Conservation Biology 13:623–632.
Heringhi, H.L. 1969. An ecological survey of the herpetofauna of Alamos, Sonora, Mexico. Master's thesis. Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.
Herkert, J.R. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: Status and distribution. Volume 2 – Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board, Springfield, Illinois.
Herkovits, J. and C.S. Pérez-Coll. 1991. Antagonism and synergism between lead and zinc in amphibian larvae. Environmental Pollution 69:217–221.
Hero, J.-M. 1990. An illustrated key to aquatic tadpoles occurring in the Central Amazon rainforest, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Amazoniana 11:201–262.
Hero, J.-M. 1992. CSIRO Bufo Project Venezuela: Larval ecology report. Cane Toad Research Management Committee, CSIRO, ACT, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Hero, J.-M. 1994. Larval ecology of B. marinus in the Townsville region. Cane Toad Research Management Committee, CSIRO ACT, Unpublished report, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Herre, W. 1939. Studien an asiatischen und nordamerikanischen Salamandriden. Abhandlungen und Berichte aus dem Museum für Naturkunde und Vorgeschichte, Magdeburg 7:79–98.
Herreid, C.F. and S. Kinney. 1966. Survival of Alaskan wood frog (Rana sylvatica) larvae. Ecology 47:1039–1041.
Herreid, C.F., II and S. Kinney. 1967. Temperature and development of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, in Alaska. Ecology 48:579–590.
Herreid, C.F., II. 1963. Range extension for Bufo boreas. Herpetologica 19:218–219.
Herring, K. and P. Verrell. 1996. Sexual incompatibility and geographic variation in mate recognition systems: tests in the salamander Desmognathus ochrophaeus. Animal Behaviour 52:279–287.
Herrington, R.E. 1985. The ecology, reproductive biology and management of the Larch Mountain salamander, (Plethodon larselli Burns) with comparisons of two other sympatric plethodons. Ph.D. dissertation. Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.
Herrington, R.E. and J.H. Larsen Jr. 1985. Current status, habitat requirements and management of the Larch Mountain salamander. Biological Conservation 34:169–179.
Herrington, R.E. and J.H. Larsen Jr. 1987. Reproductive biology of the Larch Mountain salamander (Plethodon larselli). Journal of Herpetology 21:48–56.
Herrington, R.W. 1988. Talus use by amphibians and reptiles in the Pacific Northwest. Pp. 216–221. In Szaro, R.C., K.E. Severson and D.R. Patton (Tech. Coords.), Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Technical Report RM-166, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Hess, M.J. 1998. Letter to Andy Sansom, Robert Stanton and Bruce Babbitt, 23 January.
Hess, Z.J. and R.N. Harris. 2000. Eggs of Hemidactylium scutatum (Caudata: Plethodontidae) are unpalatable to insect predators. Copeia 2000:597–600.
Heusser, H. 1968. Die Lebensweise der Erdkröte Bufo bufo (L.); Wanderungen und Sommerquartiere. Revue Suisse Zoologie 75:927–982.
Heusser, H. 1970. Ansiedlung, Ortstreue und Populationsdynamik des Grasfrosches (Rana temporaria) in einem Gartenweiher. Salamandra 6:80–87.
Hewitt, J. and J.H. Power. 1913. A list of South African Lacertilia, Ophidia, and Batrachia in the McGregor Museum, Kimberley; with field-notes on various species. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 3:147–176.
Hewitt, O.H. 1950. The bullfrog as a predator on ducklings. Journal of Wildlife Management 14:244.
Hews, D.K. and A.R. Blaustein. 1985. An investigation of the alarm response of Bufo boreas and Rana cascadae tadpoles. Behavioral and Neural Biology 43:47–57.
Hey, D. 1949. A report on the culture of the South African clawed frog at the Jonkershoek inland fish hatchery. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 32:45–54.
Hey, J. 2001. The mind of the species problem. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 16:326–329.
Hey, J.D. and E.S. Farrar. 1997. Characterizing tadpole morphs of the plains spadefoot toad, Spea bombifrons, from western Iowa. Paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Seattle, Washington.
Heyer, W.R. 1969. The adaptive ecology of the species groups of the genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae). Evolution 23:421–428.
Heyer, W.R. 1971. Leptodactylus labialis. Pp. 104:1–104.3. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Heyer, W.R. 1978. Systematics of the fuscus group of the frog genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Bulletin 29:1–85.
Heyer, W.R. 1979. Annual variation in larval amphibian populations within a temperate pond. Journal of the Washington Academy of Science 69:65–74.
Heyer, W.R. 2002. Leptodactylus fragilis, the valid name for the Middle American and northern South American white-lipped frog (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115:321–322.
Heyer, W.R., A.S. Rand, C.A. Goncalvez da Cruz and O.L. Peixoto. 1988. Decimations, extinctions, and colonizations of frog populations in southeast Brazil and their evolutionary implications. Biotropica 20:230–235.
Heyer, W.R., M.A. Donnelly, R.W. McDiarmid, L.-A.C. Hayek and M.S. Foster (Eds.). 1994. Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Heywood, I., S. Cornelius and S. Carver. 1998.An Introduction to Geographical Information Systems. Prentice Hall Series in Geographic Information Science. Clarke, K.C., Series Editor. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Higginbotham, A.C. 1939. Studies on amphibian activity. I. Preliminary report on the rhythmic activity of Bufo americanus americanus and Bufo fowleri Hinckley. Ecology 20:58–70.
Higgins, C. and C. Sheard. 1926. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the early development of Rana pipiens. Journal of Experimental Zoology 46:333–343.
Highton, R. 1956. The life history of the slimy salamander, Plethodon glutinosus, in Florida. Copeia 1956:75–93.
Highton, R. 1959. The inheritance of the color phases of Plethodon cinereus. Copeia 1959:33–37.
Highton, R. 1961. A new genus of lungless salamander from the Coastal Plain of Alabama. Copeia 1961:65–68.
Highton, R. 1962a. Revision of North American salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 6:235–367.
Highton, R. 1962b. Geographic variation in the life history of the slimy salamander. Copeia 1962:597–613.
Highton, R. 1970. Evolutionary interactions between species of North American salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Part I. Genetic and ecological relationships of Plethodon jordani and P. glutinosus in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Evolutionary Biology 4:211–241.
Highton, R. 1971 (1972). Distributional interactions among eastern North American salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Pp. 139–188. In Holt, P.C. (Ed.), The Distributional History of the Biota of the Southern Appalachians, Part III. Vertebrates. Research Division Monograph, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Highton, R. 1972. Distributional interactions among eastern North American salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Pp. 139–188. In Holt, P.C. (Ed.), The Distributional History of the Biota of the Southern Appalachians. Part III: Vertebrates. Research Division Monograph, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Highton, R. 1977. Comparison of microgeographic variation in morphological and electrophoretic traits. Evolutionary Biology 10:397–436.
Highton, R. 1979. A new cryptic species of salamander of the genus Plethodon from the southeastern United States (Amphibia: Plethodontidae). Brimleyana 1:31–36.
Highton, R. 1984. A new species of woodland salamander of the Plethodon glutinosus group from the southern Appalachian Mountains. Brimleyana 9:1–20.
Highton, R. 1985. The width of the contact zone between Plethodon dorsalis and P. websteri in Jefferson County, Alabama. Journal of Herpetology 19:544–546.
Highton, R. 1986a. Plethodon aureolus. P. 381.1. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Highton, R. 1986b. Plethodon fourchensis. P. 391.1. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Highton, R. 1986c. Plethodon hoffmani. Pp. 392.1–392.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Highton, R. 1986d. Plethodon hubrichti Thurow. Pp. 393.1–393.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Highton, R. 1986e. Plethodon kentucki Mittleman. Pp. 382.1–382.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Highton, R. 1986f. Plethodon nettingi Green. Pp. 383.1–383.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Highton, R. 1987a. Plethodon teyahalee. Pp. 401.1–401.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Highton, R. 1987b. Plethodon wehrlei Fowler and Dunn. Pp. 402.1–402.3. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Highton, R. 1988a. Plethodon punctatus Highton. Pp. 414.1–414.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Highton, R. 1988b. Plethodon shenandoah. Pp. 413.1–413.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Highton, R. 1989. Geographic protein variation. Pp. 1–78. In Highton, R., G.C. Maha and L.R. Maxson (Eds.), Biochemical Evolution in the Slimy Salamanders of the Plethodon glutinosus Complex in the Eastern United States. Illinois Biological Monographs, Number 57, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois.
Highton, R. 1990. Taxonomic treatment of genetically differentiated populations. Herpetologica 46:114–121.
Highton, R. 1995a. Pigeon Mountain salamander survey. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Unpublished report, Social Circle, Georgia.
Highton, R. 1995b. Speciation in eastern North American salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26:579–600.
Highton, R. 1997. Geographic protein variation and speciation in the Plethodon dorsalis complex. Herpetologica 53:345–356.
Highton, R. 1998. Is Ensatina eschscholtzii a ring-species? Herpetologica 54:254–278.
Highton, R. 1999a. Geographic protein variation and speciation in the salamanders of the Plethodon cinereus group with the description of two new species. Herpetologica 55:43–90.
Highton, R. 1999b. Hybridization in the contact zone between Plethodon richmondi and Plethodon electromorphus in northern Kentucky. Herpetologica 55:91–105.
Highton, R. 2000. Detecting cryptic species using allozyme data. Pp. 215–241. In Bruce, R.C., R.G. Jaeger and L.D. Houck (Eds.), The Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishing, New York.
Highton, R. and A. Larson. 1979. The genetic relationships of the salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Systematic Zoology 28:579–599.
Highton, R. and A.H. Brame. 1965. Plethodon stormi species nov. Amphibia: Urodela: Plethodontidae. Pilot Register of Zoology, Card 20, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
Highton, R. and A.B. Grobman. 1956. Two new salamanders of the genus Plethodon from the southeastern United States. Herpetologica 12:185–188.
Highton, R. and J.R. MacGregor. 1983a. Plethodon kentucki Mittleman: a valid species of Cumberland Plateau woodland salamander. Herpetologica 39:189–200.
Highton, R. and R.B. Peabody. 2000. Geographic protein variation and speciation in salamanders of the Plethodon jordani and Plethodon glutinosus complexes in the southern Appalachian Mountains with the description of four new species. Pp. 31–93. In Bruce, R.C., R.G. Jaeger and L. Houck (Eds.), The Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.
Highton, R. and T. Savage. 1961. Functions of the brooding behavior in the female red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Copeia 1961:95–98.
Highton, R. and T.P. Webster. 1976. Geographic protein variation and divergence in populations of the salamander Plethodon cinereus. Evolution 30:33–45.
Highton, R. and R.D. Worthington. 1967. A new salamander of the genus Plethodon from Virginia. Copeia 1967:617–626.
Highton, R., G.C. Maha and L.R. Maxson. 1989. Biochemical evolution in the slimy salamanders of the Plethodon glutinosus complex in the eastern United States. University of Illinois Biological Monograph, Number 57, Champaign, Illinois.
Hildebrand, S.F. 1938. A new catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Panama. Pp. 219–359. Field Museum of Natural History, Zoological Series, Number 22, Chicago, Illinois.
Hildenbrandt, H., C. Bender, V. Grimm and K. Henle. 1995. Ein individuenbasiertes Modell zur Beurteilung der Überlebenschancen kleiner Populationen der Mauereidechse (Podarcis muralis). Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Ökologie 24:207–214.
Hileman, K.S. and E.D. Brodie Jr. 1994. Survival strategies of the salamander Desmognathus ochrophaeus: interaction of predator-avoidance and anti-predator mechanisms. Animal Behaviour 47:1–6.
Hill, I.R. 1954. The taxonomic status of the mid-Gulf Coast Amphiuma. Tulane Studies in Zoology 1:191–215.
Hill, J. 2000. Rana hecksheri. Animal Diversity Web, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology website at: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/rana/r._heckscheri$narrative.html.
Hill, J.E. and P.G. Parnell. 1996. Adiaspiromycosis in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 8:496–497.
Hille, S. and J. Thiollay. 2000. The imminent extinction of the kites Milvus milvus fasciicauda and Milvus m. migrans on the Cape Verde Islands. Bird Conservation International 10:361–369.
Hillis, D.M, J.S. Frost and D.A. Wright. 1983. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Rana pipiens complex: a biochemical evaluation. Systematic Zoology 32:132–143.
Hillis, D.M. 1977. Sex ratio, mortality rate, and breeding stimulus in a Maryland population of Ambystoma maculatum. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 13:84–91.
Hillis, D.M. 1981. Premating isolating mechanisms among three species of the Rana pipiens complex in Texas and southern Oklahoma. Copeia 1981:312–319.
Hillis, D.M. 1982. Morphological differentiation and adaptation of the larvae of Rana berlandieri and Rana sphenocephala (Rana pipiens complex) in sympatry. Copeia 1982:168–174.
Hillis, D.M. 1988. Systematics of the Rana pipiens complex: puzzle and paradigm. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19:39–63.
Hillis, D.M. and R. Miller. 1976. An instance of overwintering of larval Ambystoma maculatum in Maryland. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 12:65–66.
Hillis, D.M., J.T. Collins and J.P. Bogart. 1987. Distribution of diploid and tetraploid species of gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and Hyla versicolor) in Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 117:214–217.
Hillis, D.M., A.M. Hillis and R.F. Martin. 1984. Reproductive ecology and hybridization of the endangered Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis). Journal of Herpetology 18:56–72.
Hillis, D.M., C. Moritz and B.K. Mable (Eds.). 1996. Molecular Systematics. Second edition. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Hillis, D.M., D.A. Chamberlain, T.P. Wilcox and P.T. Chippindale. 2001. A new species of subterranean blind salamander from Austin, Texas, and a systematic revision of central Texas paodomorphic salamanders. Herpetologica 57:266–280.
Hillis, R.E. and E.D. Bellis. 1971. Some aspects of the ecology of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus a. alleganiensis, in a Pennsylvania stream. Journal of Herpetology 5:121–126.
Hillman, S.S. 1980. Physiological correlates of differential dehydration tolerance in anuran amphibians. Copeia 1980:125–129.
Hilton, W.A. 1945. Distribution of the genus Batrachoseps, especially on the coastal islands of southern California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science 44:101–129.
Hilton, W.A. 1947. Lateral line sense organs in salamanders. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science 46:97–110.
Hilton, W.A. 1948. Salamander notes from the Northwest. Herpetologica 4:120.
Himes, J.G. and T.W. Bryan. 1998. Geographical distribution: Bufo americanus charlesmithi (dwarf American toad). Herpetological Review 29:246.
Hinckley, A.D. 1962. Diet of the giant toad, Bufo marinus (L.), in Fiji. Herpetologica 18:253–259.
Hinckley, M.H. 1882. On some differences in the mouth-structure of tadpoles of the anurous batrachians found in Milton, Massachusetts. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 21:307–314.
Hinderstein, B. 1968. Some noteworthy salamander records from Long Island. Engelhardtia 1:25–27.
Hine, R.L., B.L. Les and B.F. Hellmich. 1981. Leopard frog populations and mortality in Wisconsin, 1974–1976. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Technical Bulletin Number 122, Madison, Wisconsin.
Hinshaw, S. 1992. Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Pp. 77–81. In Hunter, M.L., J. Albright and J. Arbuckle (Eds.), The Amphibians and Reptiles of Maine. Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 838, Orono, Maine.
Hinshaw, S.H. and B.K. Sullivan. 1990. Predation on Hyla versicolor and Pseudacris crucifer during reproduction. Herpetologica 24:196–197.
Hirai, T. and M. Matsui. 2000. Myrmecophagy in a ranid frog Rana rugosa: specialization or weak avoidance to ant eating? Zoological Science 17:459–466.
Hirai, T. and M. Matsui. 2001. Food partitioning between two syntopic ranid frogs, Rana nigromaculata and R. rugosa. Herpetological Journal 11:109–115.
Hird, D.W., S.L. Diesch, R.G. McKinnell, E. Gorham, F.B. Martin, C.A. Meadows and M. Gasiorowski. 1983. Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromanas hydrophila in Minnesota frogs and tadpoles (Rana pipiens). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 46:1423–1425.
Hirschfield, C.J. 1962. Maximum length records for six plethodontid salamanders. Journal of Ohio Herpetological Society 3:52–53.
Hirschfeld, C.J. and J.T. Collins. 1963. Range extension for three amphibians in north-central Kentucky. Copeia 1963:438–439.
Hitchings, S.P. and T.J.C. Beebee. 1997. Genetic substructuring as a result of barriers to gene flow in urban Rana temporaria (common frog) populations—implications for biodiversity conservation. Heredity 79:117–127.
Hitchings, S.P. and T.J.C. Beebee. 1998. Loss of genetic diversity and fitness in common toad (Bufo bufo) populations isolated by inimical habitat. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 11:269–283.
Hobbs, K.L. 1932. An extension of the range of Hyla regilla (Baird and Girard) into Arizona. Copeia 1932:104.
Hoberg, T.D. and C.T. Gause. 1989. Reptiles and amphibians of North Dakota. North Dakota Herpetological Society, Grand Forks, North Dakota.
Hoberg, T.D. and C.T. Gause. 1992. Reptiles and amphibians of North Dakota. North Dakota Outdoors 55:7–18.
Hobson, J.A., C.J. Goin and O.B. Goin. 1967. Sleep behavior of frogs. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Science 30:184–186.
Hodge, R.P. 1976. Amphibians and Reptiles in Alaska, the Yukon and Northwest Territories. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, Anchorage, Alaska.
Hoff, J.G. 1977. A Massachusetts hibernation site of the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Herpetological Review 8:33.
Hoff, K. vS. 1994. Status of the Amargosa toad 1993. Prepared for the Nevada Biodiversity Initiative. In Nevada Division of Wildlife. 2000. Conservation agreement for the Amargosa toad (Bufo nelsoni) and co-occurring sensitive species in Oasis Valley, Nye County, Nevada (September, 2000).
Hoff, K. vS. 1996. Natural history studies of the Amargosa toad (Bufo nelsoni), 1995. Final report of activities. Contract number 95-33 to Nevada Division of Wildlife, Reno, Nevada (available from Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Carson City, Nevada).
Hoff, K. and R.J. Wassersug. 1986. The kinematics of swimming in larvae of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Journal of Experimental Biology 122:1–12.
Hoff, K.S., M.J. Lannoo and R.J. Wassersug. 1985. Kinematics of midwater prey capture by Ambystoma (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Copeia 1985:247–251.
Hoff, K.vS., A.R. Blaustein, R.W. McDiarmid and R. Altig. 1999. Behavior: interactions and their consequences. Pp. 125–239. In McDiarmid, R.W. and R. Altig (Eds.), Tadpoles: The Biology of Anuran Larvae. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Hoffman, A.A. and M.W. Blows. 1993. Evolutionary genetics and climate change: will animals adapt to global warming? Pp. 165–178. In Kareiva, P.M., J.G. Kingsolver and R.B. Huey (Eds.), Biotic Interactions and Global Change. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Hoffman, G.L. 1955. Notes on the life cycle of Fibricola cratera (Trematoda: Strigeida). Journal of Parasitology 41:327.
Hoffman, G.L. 1999. Parasites of North American Freshwater Fishes. Comstock Publishing, Ithaca, New York.
Hoffman, R.L. 1946. The voice of Hyla versicolor in Virginia. Herpetologica 3:141–142.
Hoffman, R.L. 1953. Plethodon welleri Walker in Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 28:86–87.
Hoffman, R.L. 1955. On the occurrence of two species of hylid frogs in Virginia. Herpetologica 11:30–32.
Hoffman, R.L. 1967. Distributional records for three species of Plethodon in Virginia. Radford Review, Faculty Research Issue 21:201–214.
Hoffman, R.L. 1980. Pseudacris brachyphona. Pp. 234.1–234.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Hoffman, R.L. 1981. On the occurrence of Pseudacris brachyphona (Cope) in Virginia. Catesbeiana 1:9–13.
Hoffman, R.L. 1983. Pseudacris brimleyi. Pp. 311.1–311.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Hoffman, R.L. 1988. Hyla femoralis. Pp. 436.1–436.3. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Hoffman, R.L. 1990. Rana utricularia (southern leopard frog): VA: Pittsylvania Co. VA. Hy 880, ca.0.4 km S of int. with VA 863 at Berry Hill. Catesbeiana 10:44–45.
Hoffman, R.L. and L. Hubricht. 1954. Distributional records of two species of Plethodon in the southern Appalachians. Herpetologica 10:191–193.
Hoffman, R.L. and H.I. Kleinpeter. 1948. A collection of salamanders from Mount Rogers, Virginia. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 38:106–108.
Hoffman, R.L. and G.L. Larson. 1999. Natural history notes: Ambystoma gracile (northwestern salamander). Predation and cannibalism. Herpetological Review 30:159.
Hoffman, R.L. and J.C. Mitchell. 1996. Records of anurans from Greensville County, Virginia. Banisteria 8:29–36.
Hoffman, R.L. and D.S. Pilliod. 1999. The ecological effects of fish stocking on amphibian populations in high-mountain wilderness lakes. U.S.G.S.-B.R.D. Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Final report, Corvallis, Oregon.
Hoffman, R.L., G.L. Larson and B.J. Brokes. 2003. Habitat segregation of Ambystoma gracile and Ambystoma macrodactylum in mountain ponds and lakes, Mount Ranier National Park, Washington, USA. Journal of Herpetology 37:24–34.
Hoffpauir, C. and E.O. Morrison. 1966. Rhabdias ranae from Bufo valliceps. Southwestern Naturalist 11:302.
Hokit, D.G, S.C. Walls and A.R. Blaustein. 1996. Context-dependent kin discrimination in larvae of the marbled salamander, Ambystoma opacum. Animal Behaviour 52:17–31.
Holbrook, J.E. 1836. North American Herpetology. Volume 1. J. Dobson and Son, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Holbrook, J.E. 1838a. North American Herpetology. Edition 1, Volume 2. J. Dobson and Son, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Holbrook, J.E. 1838b. North American Herpetology, Edition 1, Volume 3. J. Dobson and Son, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Holbrook, J.E. 1840. North American Herpetology. Volume 4. J. Dobson and Son, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Holbrook, J.E. 1842. North American Herpetology, Volume 5. J. Dobson and Son, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Holden, C.P. and K.B. Storey. 1997. Second messenger and cAMP-dependent protein kinase responses to dehydration and anoxia stresses in frogs. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 167:305–312.
Holland, D.C. and R.H. Goodman Jr. 1998. A Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of MCB Camp Pendleton, San Diego County, California. Report to AC/S Environmental Security, Resource Management Division, Camp Pendleton, California.
Holland, D.C. and N.R. Sisk. 2000. Habitat use and population demographics of the arroyo toad (Bufo californicus) on MCB Camp Pendleton, San Diego County, California: Final report for 1998–1999. AC/S Environmental Security, United States Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton, California.
Holland, D.C., M.P. Hayes and E. McMillan. 1990. Late summer movement and mass mortality in the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense). Southwestern Naturalist 35:217–220.
Holland, R.F. 1978. The geographic and edaphic distribution of vernal pools in the Great Central Valley, California. California Native Plant Society, Special Publication, Number 4, Sacramento, California.
Hollenbeck, R.R. 1976. Movements within a population of Rana pretiosa pretiosa Baird and Girard in south central Montana. Journal of the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science 8:72–73.
Hollingsworth, B. and K. Roberts. 2001. Pseudacris regilla, Pacific treefrog. San Diego Natural History Museum Field Guide, http://www.sdnhm.org/fieldguide/herps/hyla-reg.html.
Holloway, W.R. and R.W. Dapson. 1971. Histochemistry of the integumentary secretions of the narrow-mouth toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis. Copeia 1971:351–353.
Holm, P.A. and C.H. Lowe. 1995. Status and conservation of sensitive herpetofauna in the Madrean riparian habitat of Scotia Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Technical Report, Phoenix, Arizona.
Holman, J.A. 1955. Fall and winter food of Plethodon dorsalis in Johnson County, Indiana. Copeia 1955:143.
Holman, J.A. 1957. Bullfrog predation on the eastern spadefoot, Scaphiopus holbrooki. Copeia 1957:229.
Holman, J.A. 1965a. A polymorphic deme of Hyla eximia Baird from Durango, Mexico. Journal of the Ohio Herpetological Society 5:34.
Holman, J.A. 1965b. A late Pleistocene herpetofauna from Missouri. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 58:190–194.
Holman, J.A. 1975. Herpetofauna of the WaKeeney local fauna (Lower Pliocene: Clarendonian) of Trego County, Kansas. Pp. 49–66. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology, Number 12, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Holman, J.A. 1995. Pleistocene Amphibians and Reptiles in North America. Oxford University Press, New York.
Holman, J.A. 1998. Amphibian recolonization of midwestern states in the postglacial Pleistocene. Pp. 9–15. In Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwest Amphibians. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1980. Synchronous foraging and dietary overlap of three species of plethodontid salamanders. Herpetologica 36:109–115.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1982. Homing behavior of Desmognathus ochrophaeus along a stream. Journal of Herpetology 16:307–309.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1985a. Diet of larval Dytiscus daurius (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in east-central Arizona. Pan-Pacific Entomology 61:229.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1985b. Life history aspects of the predaceous diving beetle, Dytiscus daurius (Gebler), in Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 30:485–490.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1986a. Predator avoidance and diel patterns of microhabitat use by larval tiger salamanders. Ecology 67:737–748.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1986b. Intraspecific predation and habitat use by tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum). Journal of Herpetology 20:439–441.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1986c. Effect of microhabitat on fitness components of larval tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum. Oecologia 71:142–148.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1989a. Predation risk and macroalgae use by the stream-dwelling salamander Ambystoma texanum. Copeia 1989:22–28.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1989b. Salamander predation and vertical distributions of zooplankton. Freshwater Biology 21:461–472.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1991. Macrohabitat effects on egg deposition and larval growth, survival, and instream dispersal in Ambystoma barbouri. Copeia 1991:687–694.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1995. Oviposition sites and fish-deterrent mechanisms of two stream anurans. Copeia 1995:607–613.
Holomuzki, J.R. 1997. Habitat-specific life-histories and foraging by stream-dwelling American toads. Herpetologica 53:445–453.
Holomuzki, J.R. and J.P. Collins. 1983. Diel movement of larvae of the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum. Journal of Herpetology 17:276–278.
Holomuzki, J.R. and J.P. Collins. 1987. Trophic dynamics of a top predator, Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum (Caudata: Ambystomatidae), in a lentic community. Copeia 1987:949–957.
Holomuzki, J.R., J.P. Collins and P.E. Brunkow. 1994. Trophic control of fishless ponds by tiger salamander larvae. Oikos 71:55–64.
Holsinger, J.R. 1982. A preliminary report on the cave fauna of Burnsville Cove, Virginia. Bulletin of the National Speleological Society 44:98–101.
Holycross, A.T., B.G. Fodorko and O. Fourie. 1999. Natural history notes: Bufo alvarius (Colorado River toad). Habitat. Herpetological Review 20:90.
Hölzinger, J. 1987. Die in Baden-Würtemberg gefährdeten Lurche (Amphibia) und Kriechtiere (Reptilia) Rote Liste. (Second Draft, 31 December 1984.) Beihefte zu den Veröffentlichungen für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege in Baden-Württemberg 41:157–164.
Holzwart, J. and K.D. Hall. 1984. The absence of glycerol in the hibernating American toad (Bufo americanus). Bios 55:31–36.
Hom, C.L. 1987. Reproductive ecology of female dusky salamanders, Desmognathus fuscus (Plethodontidae), in the southern Appalachians. Copeia 1987:768–777.
Hom, C.L. 1988. Cover object choice by female dusky salamanders, Desmognathus fuscus. Journal of Herpetology 22:247–249.
Honegger, R.E. 1970. Houston toad Bufo houstonensis Sanders 1953. Red Data Book, Volume 3, Amphibia and Reptilia. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Survival Service Commission, Morges, Switzerland.
Honegger, R.E. 1981. Threatened Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Supplementary Volume. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Wiesbaden.
Hood, H.H. 1934. A note on the red-backed salamander at Rochester, New York. Copeia 1934:141–142.
Hooge, P.N. and B. Eichenlaub. 1997. Animal movement extension to ArcView. Version 1.1. Alaska Biological Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, Alaska.
Hoopes, I. 1930. Bufo in New England. Bulletin of the Boston Society of Natural History 57:13–20.
Hoopes, I. 1938. Do you know the mink frog? New England Naturalist 1:4–6.
Hopey, M.E. and J.W. Petranka. 1994. Restriction of wood frogs to fish-free habitats: how important is adult choice? Copeia 1994:1023–1025.
Hopkins, S.H. 1933. Note on the life history of Clinostomum marginatum (Trematoda). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 52:147–149.
Hopkins, W.A., J. Congdon and J.K. Ray. 2000. Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal-burning power plant. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19:862–868.
Hoppe, D. 1996. Unnatural history note: Minnesota deformed frog study. Minnesota Herpetological Society Newsletter 16:9.
Hoppe, D. and E. Mottl. 1997. Anuran species differences in malformation frequency and severity in Minnesota. P. 90. In Abstracts, 18th Annual Meeting, November 16–20, San Francisco, California, Society of Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), Pensacola, Florida.
Hoppe, D.M. 1996. Historical observations and recent species diversity of deformed anurans in Minnesota. In Third annual meeting of the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program. www.im.nbs.gov/naamp3/naamp3.html.
Hoppe, D.M. 2000. History of Minnesota frog abnormalities: do recent findings represent a new phenomenon? Pp. 86–89. In Kaiser, H., G.S. Casper and N. Bernstein (Eds.), Investigating Amphibian Declines: Proceedings of the 1998 Midwest Declining Amphibians Conference. Iowa Academy of Science, Volume 107, Cedar Falls, Iowa.
Hoppe, D.M. and R.G. McKinnell. 1991. Minnesota's mutant leopard frogs. Minnesota Volunteer 1991:56–63.
Horne, E.A. 1988. Aggressive behavior of female red-backed salamanders. Herpetologica 44:203–209.
Horne, E.A. and R.G. Jaeger. 1988. Territorial pheromones of female red-backed salamanders. Ethology 78:143–152.
Horne, M.T. and W.A. Dunson. 1995. Effects of low pH, metals, and water hardness on larval amphibians. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 29:500–505.
Horner, S., A. Reister and D.L. Carlson. 2000. Cytogenic analysis of deformed frogs. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 64:35–36.
Hosmer, D.W., Jr. and S. Lemeshow. 1989. Applied Logistic Regression. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Hossack, B.R. 1998. Landscape influences on headwater streams and stream amphibians in northern Idaho. Master's thesis. University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.
Hossack, B.R. 2002. Natural history notes: Ambystoma macrodactylum krausei (northern long-toed salamander). Vocalization. Herpetological Review 33:121.
Houck, L.D. 1977a. Reproductive biology of a Neotropical salamander, Bolitoglossa rostrata. Copeia 1977:70–82.
Houck, L.D. 1977b. Life history patterns and reproductive biology of Neotropical salamanders. Pp. 43–72. In Taylor, D.H. and S.I. Guttman (Eds.), The Reproductive Biology of Amphibians. Plenum Press, New York.
Houck, L.D. 1980. Courtship behavior in the plethodontid salamander, Desmognathus wrighti. American Zoologist 20:825 (Abstract).
Houck, M.A. and E.D. Bellis. 1972. Comparative tolerance to desiccation in the salamanders Desmognathus f. fuscus and Desmognathus o. ochrophaeus. Journal of Herpetology 6:209–215.
Houck, L.D., S.G. Tilley and S.J. Arnold. 1985. Sperm competition in a plethodontid salamander: preliminary results. Journal of Herpetology 19:423–425.
Houck, L.D., A.M. Bell, N.L. Reagan-Wallin and R.C. Feldhoff. 1998. Effects of experimental delivery of male courtship pheromones on the timing of courtship in a terrestrial salamander, Plethodon jordani (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Copeia 1998:214–219.
Houck, L.D., M.T. Mendonca, T.K. Lynch and D.E. Scott. 1996. Courtship behavior and plasma levels of androgens and corticosterone in male marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum (Ambystomatidae). General and Comparative Endocrinology 104:243–252.
Houck, W.J. 1969. Albino Aneides ferreus. Herpetologica 25:54.
Houlahan, J.E., C.S. Findlay, A.H. Meyer, S.L. Kuzmin and B.R. Schmidt. 2001. Reply to Alford et al. 2001. Nature 412:500.
Houlahan, J.E., C.S. Findlay, B.R. Schmidt, A.H. Meyer and S.L. Kuzmin. 2000. Quantitative evidence for global amphibian population declines. Nature 404:752–755.
Hovey, T.E. and D.R. Bergen. 2003. Natural history notes: Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog). Predation. Herpetological Review 34:360–361.
Hovingh, P. 1997. Amphibians in the eastern Great Basin (Nevada and Utah, USA): a geographical study with paleozoological models and conservation implications. Herpetological Natural History 5:97–134.
Hovingh, P. 1993. Aquatic habitats, life history observations, and zoogeographic considerations of the spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) in Tule Valley, Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 53:168–179.
Hovingh, P., B. Benton and D. Bornholdt. 1985. Aquatic parameters and life history observations of the Great Basin spadefoot toad in Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 45:22–30.
Howard, J.H. and R.L. Wallace. 1981. Microecological variation of electrophoretic loci in populations of Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Copeia 1989:466–471.
Howard, J.H. and R.L. Wallace. 1985. Life history characteristics of populations of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) from different altitudes. American Midland Naturalist 113:361–373.
Howard, J.H., L.W. Seeb and R. Wallace. 1993. Genetic variation and population divergence in the Plethodon vandykei species group (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Herpetologica 49:238–247.
Howard, J.H., R.L. Wallace and J.H. Larsen Jr. 1983. Genetic variation and population divergence in the Larch Mountain Salamander (Plethodon larselli). Herpetologica 39:41–46.
Howard, P.C. 1991. Nature conservation in Uganda’s tropical forest reserves. World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland.
Howard, R.D. 1978a. The evolution of mating strategies in bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana. Evolution 32:850–871.
Howard, R.D. 1978b. The influence of male-defended oviposition sites on early embryo mortality in bullfrogs. Ecology 59:789–798.
Howard, R.D. 1979. Estimating reproductive success in natural populations. American Naturalist 114:221–231.
Howard, R.D. 1980. Mating behavior and mating success in wood frogs, Rana sylvatica. Animal Behavior 28:705–716.
Howard, R.D. 1981. Sexual dimorphism in bullfrogs. Ecology 62:303–310.
Howard, R.D. 1988. Sexual selection on male body size and mating behaviour in American toads, Bufo americanus. Animal Behaviour 36:1796–1808.
Howard, R.D. and A.G. Kluge. 1985. Proximate mechanisms of sexual selection in wood frogs. Evolution 39:260–277.
Howard, R.D. and J.G. Palmer. 1995. Female choice in Bufo americanus: effects of dominant frequency and call order. Copeia 1995:212–217.
Howard, R.D. and J.R. Young. 1998. Individual variation in male vocal traits and female mating preferences in Bufo americanus. Animal Behaviour 55:1165–1179.
Howard, R.R. 1971. Avoidance learning of spotted salamanders, Ambystoma maculatum, by domestic chickens. American Zoologist 11:637.
Howard, R.R. and E.D. Brodie Jr. 1970. A mimetic relationship in salamanders: Notophthalmus viridescens and Pseudotriton ruber. American Zoologist 10:475.
Howard, R.R. and E.D. Brodie Jr. 1973. A Batesian mimetic complex in salamanders: responses to avian predators. Herpetologica 29:33–41.
Howard, W.E. 1950. Birds as bullfrog food. Copeia 1950:152.
Howe, G.E., R. Gillis and R.C. Mowbray. 1998. Effects of chemical synergy and larval stage on the toxicity of atrazine and alachlor to amphibian larvae. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:519–525.
Howell, T. and A. Hawkins. 1954. Variation in topotypes of the salamander Plethodon jordani melaventris. Copeia 1954:32–36.
Howell, T. and V. Switzer. 1953. Integrades of the two-lined salamander, Eurycea bislineata, in Georgia. Herpetologica 9:152.
Howland, J.M., M.J. Sredl and J.E. Wallace. 1997. Validation of visual encounter surveys. Pp. 21–36. In Sredl, M.J. (Ed.), Ranid Frog Conservation and Management. Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program, Technical Report, Number 121, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona.
Howley, P., D. Ganem and E. Kieff. 1997. DNA viruses. Pp. 168–184. In DeVita, V.T., Jr., S. Hellman and S.A. Rosenberg (Eds.), Cancer Principles and Practice of Oncology. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Hoy, M.D. 1994. Depredations by herons and egrets at bait fish farms in Arkansas. Aquaculture Magazine 20:52–56.
Hranitz, J.M., F.C. Hill, R.G. Sagar and T.S. Klinger. 1989. Abundance size and sex ratios of Bufo woodhousii fowleri Hinkley (Chordata: Amphibia) on Assateague Island, Virginia and the adjacent mainland. American Zoologist 29:169a.
Hranitz, J.M., T.S. Klinger, F.C. Hill, R.G. Sagar, T. Mencken and J. Carr. 1993. Morphometric variation between Bufo woodhousii fowleri Hinckley (Anura: Bufonidae) on Assateague Island, Virginia and the adjacent mainland. Brimleyana 19:65–75.
Huang, C. and A. Sih. 1990. Experimental studies of behaviorally mediated indirect interactions through a shared predator. Ecology 71:1515–1522.
Huang, C. and A. Sih. 1991a. An experimental study on the effects of salamander larvae on isopods in stream pools. Freshwater Biology 25:451–459.
Huang, C. and A. Sih. 1991b. Experimental studies on direct and indirect interactions in a three trophic-level stream system. Oecologia 85:530–536.
Hubbard, J.P., H.C. Conway, H. Campbell, G. Schmitt and M.D. Hatch. 1979. Handbook of species endangered in New Mexico. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Hubbard, M.E. 1903. Correlated protective devices in some California salamanders. University of California Publications in Zoology 1:157–170.
Hubbs, C. 1962. Effects of a hurricane on the fish fauna of a coastal pool and drainage ditch. Texas Journal of Science 14:289–296.
Hubbs, C.E. and N.E. Armstrong. 1961. Minimum developmental temperature tolerance of two anurans, Scaphiopus couchi and Microhyla olivacea. Texas Journal of Science 13:358–362.
Hubbs, C. and F.D. Martin. 1967. Bufo valliceps breeding in artificial pools. Southwestern Naturalist 12:105–106.
Hubbs, C., T. Wright and O. Cuellar. 1963. Developmental temperature tolerance of central Texas populations of two anuran amphibians Bufo valliceps and Pseudacris streckeri. Southwestern Naturalist 8:142–149.
Hubbs, C.L. 1918. Bufo fowleri in Michigan, Indiana and Illinois. Copeia 55:40–43.
Huber, W. 1993. Ecotoxicological relevance of atrazine in aquatic systems. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12:1865–1881.
Hudson, G.E. 1942. The amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Nebraska Conservation Bulletin, Number 24, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Hudson, G.E. 1972 (reprinted). The amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Nebraska Conservation Bulletin, Number 24, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Hudson, M.S. 1983. Waterfowl production on three age-classes of stock ponds in Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 447:112–117.
Hudson, P.J., A.P. Dobson and D. Newborn. 1998. Prevention of population cycles by parasite removal. Science 282:2256–2258.
Hudson, R.G. 1950. A possible hibernating site for the spring peeper. Copeia 1950:59.
Hudson, R.G. 1954. An annotated list of the reptiles and amphibians of the Unami Valley, Pennsylvania. Herpetologica 10:67–72.
Hudson, R.G. 1955. Observations on the larvae of the salamander Eurycea bislineata bislineata. Herpetologica 11:202–204.
Hudson, R.G. 1956. The leopard frog Rana pipiens sphenocephala in southeastern Pennsylvania. Herpetologica 12:182–183.
Huggins, D.G. 1971. Scaphiopus bombifrons Cope, a species new to Iowa. Journal of Herpetology 5:216.
Hughes, J.B., G.C. Daily and P.R. Ehrlich. 1997. Population diversity: its extent and extinction. Science 278:689–692.
Hughes, M., R. Petersen and R.M. Duffield. 1999. Natural history notes: Plethodon cinereus (red-backed salamander). Habitat. Herpetological Review 30:160.
Hughes, N. 1965. Comparison of frontoparietal bones of Scaphiopus bombifrons and S. hammondi as evidence of interspecific hybridization. Herpetologica 21:196–201.
Hughes, R.C. 1928. Studies on the trematode family Stirgeidae (Holostomidae). Number VII. Tetracotyle pipientis Faust. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 47:42–53.
Huheey. J.E. 1959. Notes on habits of some plethodontid salamanders. Herpetologica 15:144.
Huheey, J.E. 1960. Mimicry in the color patterns of certain Appalachian salamanders. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 76:246–251.
Huheey, J.E. 1964. Use of burrows by the black-bellied salamander. Journal of the Ohio Herpetological Society 4:105.
Huheey, J.E. 1966. The desmognathine salamanders of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Journal of the Ohio Herpetological Society 5:63–72.
Huheey, J.E. 1980. Studies in warning coloration and mimicry VIII. Further evidence for a frequency-dependent model of predation. Journal of Herpetology 14:223–230.
Huheey, J.E. and R.A. Brandon. 1961. Further notes on mimicry in salamanders. Herpetologica 17:63–64.
Huheey, J.E. and R.A. Brandon. 1973. Rockface populations of the mountain salamander, Desmognathus ochrophaeus, in North Carolina. Ecological Monographs 43:59–77.
Huheey, J.E. and R.A. Brandon. 1974. Studies in warning coloration and mimicry. VI. Comments on the warning coloration of red efts and their presumed mimicry by red salamanders. Herpetologica 30:149–155.
Huheey, J.E. and A. Stupka. 1967. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee.
Huizinga, H.W. and M.J. Nadakavukaren. 1997. Cellular responses of goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), to metacercariae of Ribeiroia marini (Faust and Hoffman, 1934). Journal of Fish Diseases 20:401–408.
Hulse, A.C. 1978. Bufo retifomis. Pp. 207.1–207.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Hulse, A.C. and K.L. Hulse. 1992. New county records for amphibians and reptiles from Pennsylvania. Herpetological Review 23:62–64.
Hume, D. 1748. Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding. [Reprinted 1955. An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Liberal Arts Press, New York.].
Humphries, C.J., R.I. Vane-Wright and P.H. Williams. 1991. Biodiversity reserves: setting new priorities for the conservation of wildlife. Parks 2:34–38.
Humphries, C.J., P.H. Williams and R.I. Vane-Wright. 1995. Measuring biodiversity value for conservation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26:93–111.
Humphries, W.J. 1999. Ecology and population demography of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in West Virginia. Master's thesis. Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia.
Humphries, W.J. and T.K. Pauley. 2000. Seasonal changes in nocturnal activity of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in West Virginia. Journal of Herpetology 34:604–607.
Hunsaker, D., II and P. Breese. 1967. Herpetofauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science 21:423–428.
Hunsaker, D. and F.E. Potter Jr. 1960. "Red leg" in a natural population of amphibians. Herpetologica 16:285–286.
Hunt, R.H. 1980. Toad sanctuary in a tarantula burrow. Natural History 89:48–53.
Hunter, B.R., D.L. Carlson, E.D. Seppanen, P.S. Killian, B.K. McKinnell and R.G. McKinnell. 1989. Are renal carcinomas increasing in Rana pipiens after a decade of reduced prevalence? American Midland Naturalist 122:307–312.
Hunter, G.W. and W. Hunter. 1934. Studies on fish and bird parasites. Supplement. Pp. 230–234. In New York State Conservation Department, 23rd Annual Report, 1933, Albany, New York.
Hunter, M.G. 1998. Watershed-level patterns among stream amphibians in the Blue River watershed, west-central Cascades of Oregon. Master's thesis. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
Hunter, M.L., Jr., A.J.K. Calhoun and M. McCollough (Eds.). 1999. Maine Amphibians and Reptiles. University of Maine Press, Orono, Maine.
Hunter, M.L., Jr., J. Albright and J. Arbuckle (Eds.). 1992. The amphibians and reptiles of Maine. Bulletin of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Number 838, Orono, Maine.
Huntington, C., T. Stuhlman and D.J. Cullen. 1993. Plethodon sequoyah. Pp. 557.1–557.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Hupf, T.H. 1977. Natural histories of two species of leopard frogs, Rana blairi and Rana pipiens, in a zone of sympatry in northeastern Nebraska. Master's thesis. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Hurlbert, S.H. 1969. The breeding migrations and interhabitat wandering of the vermilion-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque). Ecological Monographs 39:465–488.
Hurlbert, S.H. 1970a. Predator responses to the vermilion-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens). Journal of Herpetology 4:47–55.
Hurlbert, S.H. 1970b. The post-larval migration of the red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque). Copeia 1970:515–528.
Hurlbert, S.H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Mongraphs 54:187–211.
Hurter, J., Sr. 1911. Herpetology of Missouri. Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis 20:59–274.
Husak, J.F. 1998. Geographic distribution: Eleutherodactylus marnockii (cliff chirping frog). Herpetological Review 29:48.
Husting, E.L. 1965. Survival and breeding structure in a population of Ambystoma maculatum. Copeia 1965:352–362.
Hutcherson, J.E., C.L. Peterson and R.F. Wilkinson. 1989. Reproductive and larval biology of Ambystoma annulatum. Journal of Herpetology 23:181–183.
Hutchison, V.H. 1956. Notes of the plethodontid salamanders, Eurycea lucifuga (Rafinesque) and Eurycea longicauda longicauda Green. Occasional Papers National Speleological Society, Number 3, Huntsville, Alabama.
Hutchison, V.H. 1958. The distribution and ecology of the cave salamander, Eurycea lucifuga. Ecological Monographs 28:1–20.
Hutchison, V.H. 1961. Critical thermal maxima in salamanders. Physiological Zoology 34:92–125.
Hutchison, V.H. 1966. Eurycea lucifuga. Pp. 24.1–24.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Hutchison, V.H. and R.K. Dupré. 1992. Thermoregulation. Pp. 206–249. In Feder, M.E. and W.W. Burggren (Eds.), Environmental Physiology of the Amphibians. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Hutchison, V.H. and M.R. Ferrance. 1970. Thermal tolerances of Rana pipiens acclimated to daily temperature cycles. Herpetologica 26:1–8.
Hutchison, V.H. and C.S. Hammen. 1958. Oxygen utilization in the symbiosis of embryos of the salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, and the alga, Oophila ambylstomatis. Biological Bulletin 155:438–489.
Hutchison, V.H. and E.S. Hazard III. 1984. Erythrocytic organic phosphates: diel and seasonal cycles in the frog, Rana berlandieri. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 79:533–538.
Hutchison, V.H., W.G. Whitford and M. Kohl. 1968. Relation of body size and surface area to gas exchange in anurans. Physiological Zoology 41:65–85.
Hyatt, A., C. Musso and G. Lopez. 1995. The isolation, identification and characterisation of viruses that might serve as bio-control agents against B. marinus in Australia. CSIRO Bufo Project: An Overview of Research Outcomes, CSIRO, Unpublished report, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, CSIRO, Geelong, Australia.
Hyde, E.J. 2000. Assessing the diversity and abundance of salamanders in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Master's thesis. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.