Family StrabomantidaeRudolf von May, University of California, Berkeley
Photo by Esteban Alzate
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1. General Introduction
The family Strabomantidae was proposed by S. B. Hedges, W. E. Duellman, and M. P. Heinike in 2008, in a study on phylogenetics and systematics of ground-breeding frogs (Hedges et al. 2008). The type genus for the family, Strabomantis, was proposed by W. C. H. Peters in 1863.
As of February 7st, 2013, the family Strabomantidae contained 600 species belonging to 19 genera, making it one of the most speciose families of amphibians. Species in the family Strabomantidae are commonly referred to as terrestrial-breeding frogs, as, presumably, all species have direct development (i.e., there are no free-living tadpoles). This specialized reproductive mode allows them to exploit a variety of habitats, as long as they contain sufficient moisture.
A recent study (Pyron & Wiens 2011) determined that Strabomantidae is nonmonophyletic and considered the group to be a subfamily (Strabomantinae ) within the Craugastoridae (which was also proposed by Hedges et al. 2008). However, Blackburn and Wake (2011) reviewed the taxonomy of these groups and retained the original delimitation proposed by Hedges et al. (2008). Thus, Strabomantidae and Craugastoridae are considered separate families.
a. External Morphology and general body shape.
d. Growth and development.
To explore available genetic data for Strabomantidae in GenBank, click here.
a. Geographical distribution.
b. Elevational range.
a. Trophic biology.
b. Type of microhabitat(s).
c. Life history.All species of of this family are believed to have direct development. Little is known for many of these species and more work needs to be done.
Note: Rather than focus on supplying references to all literature (or even all literature including species descriptions), the below list aims to capture diverse aspects of the biology of taxa in this family. In some cases, this includes significant taxonomic works, especially revisionary studies.
Blackburn DC, Wake DB. 2011 Class Amphibia Gray, 1825. In: Zhang Z.-Q (ed.) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 38-54.
Duellman, W.E., and E. Lehr. 2009. Terrestrial-breeding Frogs (Strabomantidae) in Peru. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster.
Hedges, S.B., Duellman, W.E., and M.P Heinicke. 2008. New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation. Zootaxa 1737: 1-182.
Heinicke, M.P., Duellman, W.E., and S.B. Hedges. 2007. Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 10092-10097.
Lehr, E., and A. Catenazzi. 2009. A new species of Noblella (Anura: Strabomantidae) from southern Peru: the smallest frog of the Andes. Copeia 2009:148-156.
Padial J. M. & I. De la Riva. 2009. Integrative taxonomy reveals cryptic Amazonian species of Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 155: 97-122.
Pyron A, Wiens JJ. 2011 A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia with over 2,800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Mol Phy Evol 61: 543-583.
Schmid M, Steinlein C, Bogart JP, Feichtinger W, Leon P, La Marca E, Diaz LM, Sanz A, Chen S-H, Hedges SB. 2010. The chromosomes of terraranan frogs: insights into vertebrate cytogenetics. Cytogenetics and Genome Research 130-131: 1-568.