10 species in 2 genera
Commonly Called Yellow-Bellied Toads, Fire-Bellied Toads, Flat-Headed Toads
Bombina variegata variegata
Photo by Boris I. Timofeev
(Click for family gallery)
This family is composed of the two genera Barbourula and Bombina. Barbourula is found in the Philippines and Borneo while Bombina occurs in Europe, Soviet Republics, China, Vietnam, and Korea. Species of Bombina are active during the day and have aposematic coloration ventrally. Bombina arch their bodies backward in an "unken reflex" when threatened, exposing their bright ventral colors and thus advertising their toxic skin secretions. (This defensive reflex is also found in some salamanders.) Barboroula species are not as colorful and are very secretive and active at night. These are small aquatic toads that lay eggs and vocalize during inhalation (unique among extant anurans).
The only known lungless frog is a bombinatorid, Barbourula kalimantanensis, the Bornean Flat-headed Frog. Respiration is via the skin since it lacks lungs entirely, and thus this aquatic species lives in cold, clear mountain streams of Borneo with high oxygen content.Written by AmphibiaWeb
Notable Family Characteristics
- Inhabits ponds, slow-moving waters, and associated submersive vegetation or rocky shores
- Bombina has brightly colored venters, likely as a warning coloration
- Most likely diurnal
- Displays "unken reflex" when threatened (Bombina)
- Vocalizes on inhalation
- Morphological characters for this group are: 1) halves of sphenethmoid fused; 2) absence of palatines and paired frontoparietals in skull; 3) epipubic muscle absent; 4) pupil triangular or vertically elliptical; 5) expanded flange of quadratojugal; 6) presence of endochondral ossifications in the hyoid plate
- Distribution limited to Europe, and also Asia, specifically southern China through the Korean Peninsula, Borneo and Philippines
Cartography Credit: Zoe Yoo, UC Berkeley
Range maps sources: AmphibiaWeb, UC Berkeley, and IUCN RedList
Bickford, D., Iskandar, D., and Barlian, A. 2008. ''A lungless frog discovered on Borneo.'' Current Biology, 18, R374-R375.
Vitt, L. J., and J. P. Caldwell. 2013. Herpetology. An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Fourth Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Genus Barbourula (2 species)
Barbourula busuangensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video Barbourula kalimantanensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Genus Bombina (8 species)
Bombina bombina AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video Bombina fortinuptialis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video Bombina lichuanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video Bombina maxima no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video Bombina microdeladigitora AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video Bombina orientalis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video Bombina pachypus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video Bombina variegata AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: https://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed:
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