AmphibiaWeb - Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus
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Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus
Southern Sichuan Crocodile Newt
Subgenus: Tylototriton
family: Salamandridae
subfamily: Pleurodelinae
genus: Tylototriton
 
Species Description: Hou M, Li P, Lu S 2012 Morphological research development of genus Tylototriton and primary confirmation of the status of four cryptic species (in Chinese). J Huangshan Univ 14:61-65. (authors of name: Hou, Gu, Zhang, Zeng, Li and Lu).

© 2015 Axel Hernandez (1 of 1)

AmphibiaChina 中国两栖类.

Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Endangered (EN)
CITES Appendix II
National Status None
Regional Status None

   

 

View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.

Description

Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus is a Crocodlie Newt in which males are typically between 156.2 - 173.0 mm and females average around 178.2 mm. Their heads are flat, thin, and dorsally concave. Their heads are longer than they are wide. They have a short muzzle and a skull with bony ridges on both sides. Their torso width is constant in males but widens posteriorly in females. They have rough skin. They have slender forelimbs that, when adpressed towards the head, have palms that go beyond the snout. They have slender hind limbs that are longer than their forelimbs. Finger three is the largest, followed by finger two, four, and one. Their third toe is the largest, followed by four, two, five, and one. They do not have webbing. The tail is flat and longer than the rest of the body. The vent is mounded in males and flat in females (Hou et al. 2012, Fei Liang et al. 2012, Amphibians of China 2022).

Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus differs from T. panhai by having less developed ridges on its head and having orange and yellow on limbs and on the entire tail. Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus also differs from T. uyenoi by having orange markings connected by the warts on its sides rather than being separated (Nishikawa et al. 2013).

In life, the head and body are black to brown-black. They have orange to brown-red warts that run along their sides, the edge of their skull and tips of their snout, their spine, their fingers and toes, and tails. The bottom of the limbs can be brown-red or brown-black (Hou et al. 2012, Fei Liang et al. 2012, Amphibians of China 2022).

The species displays both sexual dimorphism and individual variation. The torso width is constant in males while it widens posteriorly in females, additionally, the cloaca has a mound shape in males while it is flat in females (Hou et al. 2012, Fei Liang et al. 2012, Amphibians of China 2022). The warts, legs, parotoid glands, and tail on the side of the body were orange and brighter in females and darker brown to dark orange in males (Hernandez 2017). The ventral surface of the limbs can be brown-red or brown-black (Hou et al. 2012, Fei Liang et al. 2012, Amphibians of China 2022).

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: China

 

View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus is only found in the Daliang Mountain in Southern Sichuan China, where the climate is humid and temperatures range from 80 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer and 43 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter (Zhao 1989). They live in the forested wetlands of the Daliang Mountain, where elevation reaches more than 4,000 meters. Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus is found in between the 2,000 - 3,000 m elevation levels of the mountain range (IUCN 2020).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus is primarily terrestrial and can be considered both diurnal and nocturnal in its breeding season of June/July, but nocturnal the majority of the year (Sparreboom 2014).

This species is found most commonly in higher elevation, and can be found in re-growth areas where human development has cleared large forests. The species is listed as “Endangered” and experiencing swift decline from anthropogenic incursions into their habitat for agriculture, livestock grazing, and resource acquisition from forests/rivers (Sparreboom 2014).

Throughout its breeding season, it is more common to find them occupying anoxic, semi-aquatic habitats such as marshes. Males chase females in attempts to initiate amplexus. Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus lays eggs in the marshes in the water and near the water’s edge (Sparreboom 2014).

Larvae remain in their aquatic hatching grounds for approximately half a year to ten months before fully metamorphosing (Hou et al. 2012).

Trends and Threats
The population status of the T. pseudoverrucosus is declining and is listed as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List. Small population size, pollution due to an increase of urbanization and loss of habitat due to an over abundance of agricultural production are factors that are associated with the increased decline of the T. pseudoverrucosus (Xie et al. 2007, IUCN 2020).

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Intensified agriculture or grazing
Urbanization
Habitat fragmentation
Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants
Disease
Loss of genetic diversity from small population phenomena

References

AmphibiaChina. (2022). "The database of Chinese amphibians." Electronic Database accessible at http://www.amphibiachina.org/. Kunming Institute of Zoology (CAS), Kunming, Yunnan, China. Downloaded on 25 February 2022

Fei, L., Ye, C., Jiang, J. (2012). Color Atlas of Chinese Amphibians and Their Distribution. Sichuan Science and Technology Press, Chengdu.

Hernandez, A. (2017). “Notes on the reproductive ecology and courtship behavior of Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus Hou, Gu, Zhang, Zeng, Li & Lü 2012 in Sichuan province, China.” Bulletin de la Société Herpétologique de France 164, 87-90. [link]

Hou, M., Li, P., Lü, S.-q. (2012). “Morphological research development of genus Tylototriton and primary confirmation of the status of four cryptic species”. J Huangshan Univ 14:61-65.

IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2020). "Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus." The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T78587007A122172382. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T78587007A122172382.en. Accessed on 25 February 2022.

Nishikawa, K., Khonsue, W., Pomchote, P., Matsui, M. (2013). ''Two new species of Tylototriton from Thailand (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae).'' Zootaxa, 3737(3), 261 - 279. [link]

Sparreboom, M. (2014). Salamanders of the Old World: The Salamanders of Europe, Asia and Northern Africa. Zeist, Brill, The Netherlands.

Xie, F., Lau, M.W.N., Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Fischman, D.L. (2007). "Conservation needs of amphibians in China: A review." Science in China Series C: Life Sciences 50, 265. [link]

Zhao, E., Wu, G., Inger, R. (1989). "Ecological and geographic distribution of the amphibians of Sichuan, China." Copeia, 1989(3), 549–557. [link]



Originally submitted by: Stephanie Escobar, Carlos Andres Munis, Jordan Zambonin (2022-03-10)
Description by: Stephanie Escobar, Carlos Andres Munis, Jordan Zambonin (updated 2022-03-10)
Distribution by: Stephanie Escobar, Carlos Andres Munis, Jordan Zambonin (updated 2022-03-10)
Life history by: Stephanie Escobar, Carlos Andres Munis, Jordan Zambonin (updated 2022-03-10)
Trends and threats by: Stephanie Escobar, Carlos Andres Munis, Jordan Zambonin (updated 2022-03-10)

Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2022-03-10)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Tylototriton pseudoverrucosus: Southern Sichuan Crocodile Newt <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/7873> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed May 18, 2022.



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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2022. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 18 May 2022.

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