Theloderma lateriticum
Brick-red Bug-eyed Frog, Ech cay san do
Subgenus: Theloderma
family: Rhacophoridae
subfamily: Rhacophorinae
Species Description: Bain RH, Nguyen TQ, Doan KV 2009 A new species of the genus Theloderma Tschudi, 1838 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Northwestern Vietnam. Zootaxa 2191:58-68

© 2011 Mikhail F. Bagaturov (1 of 1)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Viet Nam


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species and is known from three localities in northern Viet Nam: 1) adjacent to the Nam Tha river in the Nam Tha Commune, Lao Cai Province, (Bain et al. 2009), 2) in Ngoc Son-Ngo Loung and Ha Kia-Pa Co Nature Reserves, Hoa Binh Province (Pham et al. unpubl. data), and 3) in Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve, Bac Giang Province, (Hecht et al. 2013), where it occurs between 240–1,400 m Asl (Pham et al. unpubl. data; Bain et al. 2009). 

This species is very difficult to detect so these localities are unlikely to represent the actual limits of its range. Further surveys carried out in adjacent parts of northern Viet Nam and southern China may uncover its presence there (Bain et al. 2009), as habitat similar to that in the species' known localities occurs throughout these areas. Therefore its range has been projected beyond known sites to include these areas of suitable habitat. Based upon current knowledge, the species' estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 71,097 km2. This EOO comprises three major geographical areas (as shown in the range map), each large and separate enough to be affected by habitat loss independently, and is thus thought to represent three threat-defined locations.

Habitat and Ecology

This species is associated with sub-montane evergreen forest with many small streams and seeps. This species is thought to reproduce by laying large eggs deposited as small clutches (approximately 6–8) within gel capsules, the larvae then presumably drop into small water pools below (Bain et al. 2009).


This species is known only from three individuals (Bain et al. 2009, Hecht et al. 2013), however, this is likely due to poor detectability rather than true rarity. The population may be decreasing due to the effects of surrounding agriculture and logging practices. 

Population Trend


Major Threats

This species is known from a disturbed area of forest close to a cardamom farm (Bain et al. 2009) and part of its forest habitat are in decline due to encroachment by agriculture. However the level of habitat disturbance it can tolerate is unknown. Illegal timber logging and forest fires within Hoang Lien–Van Ban, Ngoc Son-Ngo Luong and Hang Kia-Pa Co Nature Reserves may also affect the habitat of this species (T. Nguyen pers. comm. August 2015) and plans to construct a hydroelectric dam within the species' range could also pose a threat (R. Bain pers. comm. August 2014).

Conservation Actions

Conservation Action
This species is currently known from Hoang Lien–Van Ban Proposed Nature Reserve (Bain et al. 2009), Ngoc Son-Ngo Loung and Ha Kia-Pa Co Nature Reserves (Pham et al. unpubl. data), and in Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve (Hecht et al. 2013). The species' range is also expected to extend into various other protected areas.

Research Needed
Addressing the lack of data is the first step toward ensuring its long-term survival; further research should be carried out to determine the species' true distribution and relative abundance.

Red List Status

Least Concern (LC)


Listed as Least Concern as, despite poor detectability resulting in few observations, this species is expected to be widespread. However, due to ongoing and projected threats, this species may be a candidate for targeted conservation efforts.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2017. Theloderma lateriticum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T187827A113961084. .Downloaded on 22 January 2019


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