This species from Borneo is known from six sites in Malaysia and Brunei: Mengiong, on the Akah River (Inger and Haile 1960) and Gunung Mulu National Park in Sarawak (Pui and Das 2016), Mahua on the western slope of Crocker Range National Park, Poring Hot Springs in Kinabalu National Park (Matsui et al. 2007), and Sipitang in Sabah (Arifin et al. 2011), Ulu Temburong National Park, Brunei Darussalam (Grafe et al. 2012). It occurs at elevations between 300–1,000 m asl, its estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 14,363 km2, and all individuals are considered to occur in six threat-defined locations. It presumably occurs more widely on Borneo, including at sites between the known localities.
Habitat and Ecology
It is the smallest species of the genus, it is diurnal and lives along the banks of clear, small, rocky streams in primary forests, and can be found perching on rocks either along banks or mid-stream, usually near rapids (Matsui et al. 2007, Preininger et al. 2013, Stangel et al. 2015). Breeding takes place in streams and development is through larvae. In addition to vocal communication in reproductive contexts, males perform a particular visual display known as 'foot flags', by fully extending a hind limb above the head to expose the white foot webbing, which contrasts with the dark body; this is thought to augment the communication efficacy in noisy environments (Grafe et al. 2012). It will not tolerate habitat disturbance (I. Das pers. comm. March 2018).
It is locally common is suitable habitat (P. Yambun pers. comm. January 2018, I. Das. March 2018). Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
This species is occurs in three well-protected and well-managed national parks on Borneo. Outside of these protected areas, deforestation caused by logging, and the associated sedimentation of streams, are probably the principal threats to this species.
This species occurs in the Crocker Park National Park (Sabah), Ulu Temburong National Park (Brunei) and Gunung Mulu National Park (Sarawak). A captive breeding programme was established at the Vienna Zoo in 2010 from five pairs collected in the Ulu Temburong National Park in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo (Peininger et al. 2012).
Continuation of rigorous management of the existing parks to protect forest habitat is the best guarantee for the conservation of this species.
Studies on its population size, distribution and trends, life history and ecology, and threats are needed.
Red List Status
Data Deficient (DD)
Listed as Vulnerable, as this species has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 14,363 km2, it occurs in six threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the quality of its forest habitat on Borneo.
We follow Matsui et al. (2007) in removing this species from the synonymy of S. tuberilinguis.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Staurois parvus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T135759A97518102. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T135759A97518102.en .Downloaded on 21 January 2019