The description is based upon the holotype. It is a male in excellent preservative condition. SVL 32.3 mm. Snout pointed, head longer than wide. Loreal region rather concave, nostrils not distinctly projecting, situated nearer to the eyes than to the tip of snout. Tympanum distinct, half the diameter of the eye. Vomerine teeth arranged in two slightly oblique oval groups behind the choanae. Hind legs overlap about 2 mm when curved at right angles; the tibiotarsal articulation reaches the tip of the snout. Finger length: 1 < 2 < 4 < 3. Unwebbed fingers with digital expansions about the same size of the tympanum diameter. Subarticular tubercles, as well as the tubercle at the basis of the pollex, visible. Lateral metatarsalia separated. Toe length: 1 < 2 < 3 < 5 < 4. Foot webbing: 1(1), 2i(0.75), 2e(0), 3i(1), 3e(0.75), 4i(2), 4e(2), 5(0.5). Inner metatarsal tubercle length = 1.7 mm; wart-like outer metatarsal tubercle. Dorsum and belly rather smooth. Femoral glands distinct, 8.6x3.2 mm, distance between inner margins of glands on opposite femurs = 1.5 mm.
In life the dorsum has a yellowish - light brownish ground colour. Blackish blotches are present on the back, forming a reticulation on the head and loreal region. The upper surface of humerus and forearm is smooth, more or less of the same colouration of the dorsum with dark transverse bands. Fingers and toes with dark-whitish transverse bands; fingertips whitish. Flanks, as well as the area between the foreleg insertion and the jaw, pink; the yellowish dorsum colouration continues onto the pink flanks with isolated yellowish spots. Upper jaw dark with yellow spots. Iris yellowish: lower part darker; upper part lighter; dark outer ring encircling the eye. Belly pink and throat brownish. A few light spots were visible on the dark area of throat, especially at its anterior part. Femoral glands reddish.
Similar species: S. elegans
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Madagascar
Andohahela. It occurs between 300-600m asl in crevices among boulders and rocky areas in pristine forest close to flowing waters (Nussbaum et al. 2008).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Habits: The single known specimen was found in low elevation rainforest next to a small cave built by large overhanging boulders along a small shaded stream.
Calls: A trill composed of 3-4 pulses.
Breeding takes place in streams (Nussbaum et al. 2008).
Trends and Threats
Endangered: extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, all individuals are in fewer than five locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in southeastern Madagascar. It occurs in Parc National d'Andohahela (Nussbaum et al. 2008).
Relation to Humans
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Intensified agriculture or grazing
Subtle changes to necessary specialized habitat
Taken with permission from Glaw and Vences (2007).
Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
Nussbaum, R., Raxworthy, C., and Andreone, F. (2008). Spinomantis brunae. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 05 May 2009.
Written by Miguel Vences and Frank Glaw (m.vences AT tu-bs.de), Assistant Professor and Curator of Vertebrates at the Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics in the Zoological Museum at the University of Amsterdam.
First submitted 2003-04-25
Edited by Henry Zhu (2009-05-05)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2009 Spinomantis brunae: Bruna's Madagascan stream frog <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/6091> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Sep 23, 2019.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2019. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 23 Sep 2019.
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