Bronze Frog, Cow Frog, Brown Frog; Subspecies: Green Frog (Rana clamitans melanota), Bronze Frog (Rana clamitans clamitans)
|Taxonomic Notes: This species was placed in the genus Lithobates by Frost et al. (2006). However, Yuan et al. (2016, Systematic Biology, doi: 10.1093/sysbio/syw055) showed that this action created problems of paraphyly in other genera. Yuan et al. (2016) recognized subgenera within Rana for the major traditional species groups, with Lithobates used as the subgenus for the Rana palmipes group. AmphibiaWeb recommends the optional use of these subgenera to refer to these major species groups, with names written as Rana (Aquarana) catesbeiana, for example.|
© 2004 Jeremiah Easter (1 of 78)
Rana clamitans clamitans and Rana clamitans melanota are subspecies.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Canada, United States
U.S. state distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Montana, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia
Canadian province distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the environment are known to affect sex differentiation of amphibians during development. Agricultural pesticides are the most familiar environmental endocrine disruptors, but others include synthesized and natural estrogens (animal and plant). Lambert et al. (2015) found that in metamorphic Rana clamitans the bias toward females was higher in suburban ponds than in forested ponds. As well, the amount of suburban land use (residential landscaping) was related to higher levels of phytoestrogens (plant estrogens) in suburban ponds compared to forest ponds. This suggests that changes in land use are unappreciated sources of estrogen exposure to wildlife. (Written by David Cannatella)
Stewart, M. M. (1963). ''Rana clamitans.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 337.1-337.4.
Originally submitted by: April Robinson (first posted 2001-02-14)
Edited by: Kevin Gin, Michelle S. Koo (2021-11-05)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2021 Rana clamitans: Bronze Frog <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/5009> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jan 21, 2022.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2022. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 21 Jan 2022.
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