This species is found in many parts of Luzon, including the adjacent smaller islands of Polillo, Palaui, Catanduanes, and Marinduque, in the Philippines where it occurs between 0–800 m asl (A. Diesmos pers. comm. March 2018). It probably occurs a little more widely than current records suggest, especially in areas between known sites.
Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits undisturbed and disturbed streams and rivers in lower montane and lowland forests, and tree plantations adjacent to forest. However, it does not tolerate the complete opening up of its forest habitat and is therefore sensitive to major disturbance. It breeds and lays its eggs in clean streams and rivers, and the larvae develop in quiet side pools.
It is common in forested areas and disturbed areas near forest. Due to ongoing decline in the quality and extent of forest habitat across its range, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
The major threat is the destruction and conversion of both lowland and montane rainforest habitat due to small-scale agricultural activities, large-scale oil palm plantations, wood collection for charcoal production, expanding human settlements due to high levels of immigration, nickel and chromite mining, and limestone, sand and gravel quarrying (Philippines Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). In addition, the quality of its stream habitat is subject to pollution due to agricultural effluents, soil erosion, and mine-tailings (Philippines Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).
This species' range includes several protected areas, including confirmed records from Bataan Natural Park, Metropolitan Ilocos Norte Watershed Forest Reserve, Mount Malarayat Forest Reserve. Since the 2004 assessment, in collaboration with various regional academic institutions, NGO-led awareness campaigns have been taking place to educate the public regarding the need to protect remaining forests on Luzon Island, resulting in positive responses by local communities and improved protection for priority species.
The most important conservation measure needed is to designate the remaining tracts of intact lowland rainforest on Luzon as protected areas.
Further work is required to better understand the population size, distribution, and trends.
Red List Status
Near Threatened (NT)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Pulchrana similis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T58720A58481836. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T58720A58481836.en .Downloaded on 21 January 2019