Odorrana sangzhiensis Zhang, Li, Hu & Yang, 2021
Sangzhi Odorous Frog, Sang Zhi Chou Wa (Chinese)
|Species Description: Zhang B, Li Y, Hu K, Li P,Gu Z, Xiao N, Yang D. 2021. A new species of Odorrana (Anura, Ranidae) from Hunan Province, China. ZooKeys 1024: 91–115.|
Odorrana sangzhiensis is a member of the O. schmackeri complex, along with O. hejiangensis, O. huanggangensis, O. kweichowensis, O. schmackeri and O. tianmuii, but can be differentiated from all of them by O. sangzhiensis having a longer relative hind limb length; its tibiotarsal reaches beyond the tip of the snout when adpressed along the body while the other species do not extend beyond the nostrils. More specifically, O. sangzhiensis has smaller males than O. hejiangensis and larger females than O. kweichowensis. While the head is always longer than wide in O. sangzhiensis, it can be or is almost equal in length and width in O. hejiangensis, O. huanggangensis, and O. schmackeri. The two metacarpal tubercles in O. sangzhiensis differentiate it from O. hejiangensis, O. huanggangensis, and O. tianmuii, which have three, and O. schmackeri, which has an indistinct outer metacarpal tubercle. The relative finger lengths of O. sangzhiensis include a shorter first than second finger, however, in O. hejiangensis, O. huanggangensis, and O. schmackeri the second finger is shorter than the first. Meanwhile, the relative toe lengths of O. sangzhiensis include a a third toe that is shorter than the fifth, but in O. huanggangensis, O. schmackeri, and O. tianmuii the third and fifth toes are about equal. Lastly, the temporal fold in O. sangzhiensis is not obvious, but it is prominent in O. schmackeri (Zhang et al. 2021, please see the article for more comparisons).
In life, this species has a yellow-green dorsal surface on its body and head, with dark brown spots that are dispersed intermittently across the entire surface. These spots, which lack light rings, are small on the head and get larger as they move towards the center of the back. The spots become smaller and less dark as they move down the sides to the light yellow ventral surface. There are spines of a pale color on the ventral surface and throat of the males. In the region of the head, both the upper and lower lips have vertical brown bars and a brown supratympanic fold. There is a small beige dot located between the anterior corners of the eyes. The dorsal surface of all four limbs are also yellow-green with transverse brown bands along the arms and four brown bands along the thigh and tibial region. The widths of these bands as well as the distance between each band is variable and depends on the individual (Zhang et al. 2021).
Once preserved in alcohol, the vibrant colors fade. The dark brown spots along the dorsal surface turns to a dark grey and the green and yellow-green skin becomes a grey-blue coloration. On the upper and lower lips, the brown bars fade into a dark grey, and the beige dot in the anterior corners of the eyes becomes white. Additionally, the ventral body surface changes from a pale yellow into a cream or white and the undersides of all limbs turn brown or beige (Zhang et al. 2021).
This species of frog exhibits sexual dimorphism most notably in the difference in snout-vent length between males and females. Males are roughly half that of the females. Additionally, when compared to snout-vent length, the ratio of eye diameter, head length, maximum head width, inter-orbital distance, maximal tympanum diameter, and lower arm width are all found to be much smaller in females than in males. Lastly, females exhibit slightly different coloration patterns from males in that some females have a greater number and denser brown spots on their dorsal surfaces as well as a yellow-white coloration on their limbs instead of the yellow-green color on the limbs of the males (Zhang et al. 2021).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
These frogs are nocturnal and hide during the day (Zhang et al. 2021).
The breeding period for O. sangzhiensis is likely between July and August. During that time, reproductive behavior was observed, showing axillary amplexus, and one female specimen was found to contain mature eggs in her body. However, no tadpoles or egg masses were found at the time of the species description (Zhang et al. 2021).
The mature eggs found within one of the females were yellow-white color when preserved (Zhang et al. 2021).
A mix of both deciduous and coniferous trees, shrubs, and other plants can be found alongside both sides of the stream the species was found in. The dominant tree species are Ulmus changii, Castanopsis carlesii, and Sloanea hemsleyana. The dominant shrub species are Boehmeria penduliflora and Distylium myricoides. There is also an abundance of herbaceous Pilea sinofasciata, Strobilanthes dimorphotricha, and Miscanthus floridulus (Zhang et al. 2021).
Amolops ricketti can be found in sympatry with O. shangzhiensis (Zhang et al. 2021).
Trends and Threats
PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS:Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference on partial 12S and 16S mtDNA found that the sister clade to O. sangzhiensis are O. hejiangensis and a species assumed to be O. nanjiangensis. Both O. sangzhiensis and O. hejiangensis are grouped within the O. schmackeri species complex, which also contains O. huanggangensis, O. kweichowensis, O. schmackeri, O. tianmuii, and potentially other cryptic species. The genus, Odorrana included a total of 59 species at the time of the species description, and is within the family Ranidae (Zhang et al. 2021).
The species epithet, “sangzhiensis,” refers to the location in which this species was first observed. Because of this, the researchers who have described this species have also offered Sang Zhi Chou Wa as the species’ Chinese name (Zhang et al. 2021).
Originally submitted by: Parker Hamilton (2023-08-01)
Distribution by: Parker Hamilton (updated 2023-08-01)
Life history by: Parker Hamilton (updated 2023-08-01)
Trends and threats by: Parker Hamilton (updated 2023-08-01)
Comments by: Parker Hamilton (updated 2023-08-01)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2023-08-01)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2023 Odorrana sangzhiensis: Sangzhi Odorous Frog <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/9348> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Sep 29, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 29 Sep 2023.
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