Ichthyophis hypocyaneus
Javan Caecilian
family: Ichthyophiidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Data Deficient (DD)
Other International Status Data Deficient
National Status None
Regional Status None



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species was previously only known from three sites on Java, Indonesia: its type locality of Banten in West Java Province, Pekalongan in Central Java Province (where it was rediscovered in 2000) at 600 m asl, and Bodogol on the outskirts of Mount Gede Pangrango National Park in West Java Province, between 703–814 m asl (Kusrini 2007). It is now also known from Situs Arca Domas, Bogor Regency in western Java (record from 2014 - iNaturalist 2018: Javan Caecilian [Ichthyophis hypocyaneus]) and museum specimens from Petungkriyono in Pekalongan Regency, Jawa Tengah Province, and Kiskendo Cave in Kulon Progo Regency, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Province have extended the known range of this species (A. Hamidy pers. comm. May 2017). Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 14,950 km2.

Habitat and Ecology

This species is found in forest, lowland forest edges (Kusrini 2007), cultivated areas (rice paddies) and near the sewer areas of human settlements near forest (R. Eprilurahman and D. Satria pers. comm. May 2017). It is oviparous with terrestrial eggs and aquatic larvae.


For a long time it was known only from the type specimen until it was rediscovered in 2000. It is not an abundant species, but it is repeatedly found in small numbers (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). Surveys in 2009 in central Java recorded this species (Eprilurahman et al. 2010). Surveys in 2012, 2013 and 2017 at Situs Arcadomas in western Java have recorded this species (inaturalist record). Despite some adaptability to habitat modification, due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.

Population Trend


Major Threats

Although this species can survive in transformed habitats, the larvae are at risk from chemical pollutants from rice agriculture (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). Local fisherman also use a naturally occurring poison from the roots of Derris elliptica to catch eels for subsistence, which has an indirect effect on the larvae of this species which occur in the same habitat, and adult individuals can also be caught as by-catch (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). This species has been found in the online national pet trade (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is known from the Mount Gede Pangrango and Mount Halimum-Salah National Parks, and the other known localities are close to protected areas so this species may also occur in Ranca and Dieng Plateau National Reserves. No conservation actions are currently in place for this species.

Research Needed
Studies on its population size, distribution and trends, life history and ecology are needed. This species is also in need of taxonomic review (M. Wilkinson pers. comm.).

Red List Status

Data Deficient (DD)


Listed as Least Concern, despite its extent of occurrence (EOO) being 14,950 km2, because it has a relatively wide distribution, it is tolerant to a degree of habitat modification and has a presumed large population.

Taxonomic Notes

The taxonomic status of this species is unclear.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Ichthyophis hypocyaneus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T59621A97654390. .Downloaded on 21 February 2019


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