Hynobius lichenatus Boulenger, 1883
Northeast Salamander, Tohoku Sansho-uo
© 2004 Henk Wallays (1 of 24)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Japan
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Hynobius lichenatus belongs to the family Hynobiidae, which is one of only two salamander families exhibiting external fertilization of eggs. Depending on the locality and altitude, H. lichenatus breeds from March to June, when the spring thaw begins. This species seems to prefer quiet pools formed at wide places in mountain rivulets. The female lays two transparent banana-shaped egg sacs, which are characterized by their rugose appearance. Each sac may contain from 20 to 30 or more eggs. The larvae are 12-14 mm at birth but grow to about 40 mm by autumn, feeding on animal plankton, freshwater shrimp, water insects, etc. Most larvae metamorphose by autumn of the year of birth, but some late-hatching individuals may overwinter and emerge the following spring. Postbreeding adults and metamorphosed juveniles disperse in the general area of the breeding site. There are indications that juveniles take four to five years to reach sexual maturity.
Goris, R.C. and Maeda, N. (2004). Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.
Originally submitted by: Nichole Winters (first posted 2007-01-23)
Edited by: Kellie Whittaker (2007-06-14)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2007 Hynobius lichenatus: Northeast Salamander <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/3887> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 28, 2023.
Feedback or comments about this page.
Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 28 Mar 2023.
AmphibiaWeb's policy on data use.