This species occurs widely in the Western and Central Cordilleras, from Antioquia Department in Colombia, south to Cotapaxi and Las Pampas Provinces in northern Ecuador, from 1,460-2,120m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
It lives on the ground in very humid montane forest, and has also been found in open fields and very modified areas, but is always near streams. The eggs are laid in leaf-litter, and the male transports the larvae to slow-flowing streams.
It is still common in Colombia, but it has not been recorded in Ecuador since October 1990, despite extensive survey efforts.
The serious declines noted in Ecuador can possibly be attributed to chytridiomycosis. Additional likely threats are: deforestation, due to agricultural development, cultivation of illegal crops, fire, logging, and human settlement; introduction of alien predatory fish species in streams; and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops.
It occurs in several protected areas in Colombia, while in Ecuador, its geographic range overlaps with the Reserva Ecológica Los Illinizas. In view of the risk of chytridiomycosis, an ex situ population may need to be established.
Red List Status
Near Threatened (NT)
The population in Ecuador might not be conspecific with the Colombian population (T. Grant and D. Cisneros-Heredia pers. comm.).
Wilmar Bolívar, Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Taran Grant 2004. Hyloxalus lehmanni. In: IUCN 2014