This species is known from between approximately 15-700 m asl from Northeast India (Lalremsanga et al. 2007, Bortamuli et al. 2010, Matthew and Sen 2010) through Bangladesh (Mahoney and Reza 2007, Hasan et al. 2011) and Myanmar (Cope 1869, Anderson 1871) into western Thailand (Chan-ard 2003).
Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in forested areas and has been observed adjacent to various types of waterbodies including streams, pools, ponds and lakes (Mahoney et al. 2009, Matthew and Sen 2010), as well as away from water in long grass (Mahoney et al. 2009). In Bangladesh the species has been observed breeding from March to August, with reproductive activity peaking between April and June (Bortamuli et al. 2010). The species has an aquatic, free-living larval stage and breeds in both ephemeral and permanent pools in areas shaded by vegetation (Bortamuli et al. 2010). The species hibernates from November to February in Bangladesh (Bortamuli et al. 2010). Habitat in parts of this species' range is undergoing declines in quality associated with the expansion of agricultural land (Sodhi et al. 2009), and the species has been observed breeding in plantations (Bortamuli et al. 2010).
Not much is known about the size of this species' population except that it has been detected in a number of surveys (Cope 1869, Anderson 1871, Chan-ard 2003, Lalremsanga et al. 2007, Mahoney and Reza 2007, Bortamuli et al. 2010, Matthew and Sen 2010, Hasan et al. 2011). The species is reportedly uncommon in Thailand (T. Chan-ard pers. comm. date unknown), but relatively abundant where collected in Myanmar (G. Wogan pers. comm. date unknown). In Mizoram, India, it is also considered moderately abundant during the rainy season (Lalremsanga et al. 2007). It is possible that ongoing forest loss associated with expanding agriculture throughout Southeast Asia (Sodhi et al. 2009) is causing some population declines in this species.
Forest loss is ongoing throughout much of this species' range, with natural forest being logged and often replaced with expanding agriculture (particularly palm oil plantations) (Sodhi et al. 2009). Recent satellite imagery shows areas of land cleared for agriculture throughout this species' range. However, observations of this species breeding in plantations (Bortamuli et al. 2010) may indicate that it is somewhat tolerant of certain anthropogenic habitat alterations, particularly where cultivated species maintain shade for breeding (e.g. plantations).
This species is known from a number of protected areas including Madhupur National Park in Bangladesh (Mahoney and Reza 2007). Other protected areas are included in parts of the species' predicted range; it very likely occurs in some of these also.
Addressing the lack of data is the first step towards ensuring this species' long-term persistence.
Further research on its threats, and the size and trends of its population would inform conservation decisions.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern as this species is relatively widespread; it has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 1,355,732 km2.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2016. Hydrophylax leptoglossa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T58642A64131614. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T58642A64131614.en .Downloaded on 21 January 2019