Eleutherodactylus grunwaldi Reyes-Velasco, Ahumada-Carrillo, Burkhardt & Devitt, 2015
Grünwald’s Piping Frog
|Species Description: Reyes-Velasco J, Ahumada-Carrillo I, Burkhardt TR, Devitt TJ 2015 Two new species of Eleutherodactylus (subgenus Syrrhophus) from western Mexico. Zootaxa 3914; 301-317.|
Eleutherodactylus grünwaldi is part of the subgenus Syrrophus in the genus Eleutherodactylus. Many morphological traits of E. grünwaldi are similar to other species within this genus, such as its broad finger discs, fairly large size, and coloring, but it can be differentiated based on other traits. Eleutherodactylus grunwaldi shares the trait of enlarged finger discs with E. longipes and E. saxatilis. However, E. grunwaldi is distinguished from E. saxatilis because E. saxatilis has a smaller ratio of pad diameter compared with digit diameter (2:1 compared with 3:1 for E. grunwaldi). Eleutherodactylus saxatilis also has compact lumbar glands and E. grunwaldi does not. Even though they share similar sizes of finger discs, E. grunwaldi can be distinguished from E. longipes because its tympanum is smaller, never reaching larger than 50% of the width of the eye, while E. longipes can have a tympanum that reaches 60 - 90% of the width of the eye. Eleutherodactylus dennisi is another species that can be distinguished from E. grunwaldi by tympanum size, as it has a tympanum that is 50 - 60% the diameter of its eye. In addition to enlarged finger pads, the size of the toe pads can distinguish E. grunwaldi from other species in its genus. In E. grunwaldi, they are over two times the size of the smallest diameter of the digit, while E. nitidus’ toe pads are only 1.5 times the size of the width of their digits. Eleutherodactylus grunwaldi can be distinguished from E. nivicolimae by difference in size with E. grunwaldi males measuring over 28 mm from snout to vent and E. nivicolimae males measuring under 23.5 mm. Coloration also sets E. grunwaldi apart. While E. grunwaldi consistently has yellow and green splotches on a dark background, E. nivicolimae lack spots and has a background color that can range in color from gray to yellow to red (Reyes-Velasco et al. 2015). For a key to distinguishing members of the Syrrhophus subgenus see Grünwald et al. 2018.
In life, E. grunwaldi has a dark gray dorsum with a net-like pattern of yellow-green splotches along its back, neck, head, and limbs. The ventrum of this frog is white and it has pale gray hands and feet. The feet have no markings, while the hands have some very subtle markings. There is a gray line that runs from the nostril through the eye and disappears into other gray coloring behind the tympanum. Their irises are copper green. In preservative, E. grunwaldi maintains its dark gray background coloring, but the yellow-green reticulations become a very light brown-gray. It also maintains its white ventrum (Reyes-Velasco et al. 2015).
While most individuals of E. grunwaldi have been described as largely similar, some variation in color has been noted. While they all have a dark background color with yellow-green splotches on top, there is variation in the splotches themselves, both in depth of the color as well as the pattern of the splotches, with some of them being much more of a net-like pattern than others (Reyes-Velasco et al. 2015).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Specimens are more common during the summer months due to the rainy weather. During this time, breeding likely occurs, similar to other frog species within the area (Reyes-Velasco et al. 2015).
It is found in sympatry with Eleutherodactylus manantlanensis (Grünwald et al. 2018).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Eleutherodactylus grünwaldi is part of the subgenus Syrrophus in the genus Eleutherodactylus based on the morphological traits of broad finger discs, fairly large size, and coloring. Despite this, it does not appear to be especially closely related to the species with which it shares these characteristics (Reyes-Velasco et al. 2015).
At the time of the species description, preliminary phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene indicated that E. grünwaldi is most closely related to species in the E. modestus group (Reyes-Velasco et al. 2015). This was reiterated in Grünwald et al. (2018), which described six other species.
This species is named after the first person to collect a specimen of it, Christoph I. Grünwald. This occurred on July 18th, 2005 near El Terrero, Municipality of Minatitlán, Colima (Reyes-Velasco et al. 2015).
Grünwald, C. I., Reyes-Velasco, J., Franz-Chávez, H., Morales-Flores, K. I., Ahumada-Carrillo, I. T., Jones, J. M., Boissinot, S. (2018). “Six new species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae: subgenus Syrrhophus) from Mexico, with a discussion of their systematic relationships and the validity of related species.” Mesoamerican Herpetology, 5, 6-83. [link]
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2020). "Eleutherodactylus grunwaldi". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T78496612A95517314. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T78496612A95517314.en. Accessed on 21 February 2022.
Reyes-Velasco J., Ahumada-Carrillo I., Burkhardt T. R., Devitt T. J. (2015). “Two new species of Eleutherodactylus (subgenus Syrrhophus) from western Mexico.” Zootaxa, 3914(3), 301-317. [link]
Originally submitted by: Arielle Dryden-Bera, April Alderete, Claire White (2022-07-29)
Description by: Arielle Dryden-Bera, April Alderete, Claire White (updated 2022-07-29)
Distribution by: Arielle Dryden-Bera, April Alderete, Claire White (updated 2022-07-29)
Life history by: Arielle Dryden-Bera, April Alderete, Claire White (updated 2022-07-29)
Trends and threats by: Arielle Dryden-Bera, April Alderete, Claire White (updated 2022-07-29)
Comments by: Arielle Dryden-Bera, April Alderete, Claire White (updated 2022-07-29)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2022-07-29)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Eleutherodactylus grunwaldi: Grünwald’s Piping Frog <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/8306> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Feb 6, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 6 Feb 2023.
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