This species occurs in southern Sumatra, Java, Bali, Bangka, Belitung and Madura in Indonesia. Following genetic and morphological analysis, a subpopulation from West Sumatra has now been assigned to Chalcorana parvaccola and a subpopulation from Padang in Sumatra has been assigned to Chalcorana rufipes (Inger et al. 2009). Subsequently, these have now been removed from this species' distribution map. It occurs below 1,571 m asl.
Specimens that were previously thought to belong to this species but not reported in the 2004 assessment or mapped are now referred to in the accounts for C. raniceps and C. megalonesa (Borneo – M. Munir pers. comm. May 2017), and C. mocquardi (Sulawesi only).
Habitat and Ecology
This species is typically seen on rocks and vegetation along small lowland forest streams, but is also seen away from streams in forest, or in highland areas. Primary and degraded forests are equally favoured, and it can be found in human settlements, plantations and water sources filled with rubbish (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). Adults disperse widely in the forest and may even be found in wooded gardens. Breeding occurs at quiet side pools of forest streams or in temporary ponds at the edges of forests. On Sumatra it also breeds in ponds and in irrigation channels and ditches in paddy fields. The maximum clutch size is 2,207 eggs and it breeds year round (Premo 1985). Tadpoles live inside pools and quiet, deeper sections of streams (Grandison 1972, Dring 1979).
It is generally common in lowland forest streams, and is less common but still present in highland areas throughout its range. It is considered to be common and abundant in DIY Province on Java (Yudha et al. 2013, Yudha et al. 2014). It is also common in disturbed habitats on Java and Bali (M. Munir pers. comm. May 2017). The population is generally considered to be stable, although invasive species in Mount Gede Pagrango National Park may be affecting the subpopulation of this species in that locality.
There are no major threats to this species. However in 2004 in Mount Gede Pagrango National Park, a carp species and the turtle species Red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta), previously believed to have been kept as pets, were introduced (as a one off) and declines in tadpoles of this species were observed in ponds (M. Kusrini pers. comm. May 2017). In 2013, individuals of these two introduced species were observed again in the national park, but requests for their removal were not acknowledged and they may still be a problem for the tadpoles of this species in that locality. This species is also used at a very small-scale as fish bait.
It has recently tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, although there are currently no reports of population declines for this species (Kusrini et al. 2008).
This species occurs in most national parks in Java, including Mount Gede Pagrango National Park (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).
Provided existing protected areas and watershed forests remain reasonably intact, and there is not an epidemic event of chytridiomycosis, the species appears reasonably secure and no major conservation actions are required.
It is important to assess the presence and extent of the impact of the chytrid fungus on frog populations in Indonesia (Kusrini et al. 2008).
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification and presumed large population.
This is a restricted concept of this species following the split of the broader concept into this, Chalcorana parvaccola (as Hylarana parvaccola - Inger et al. 2009) and Chalcorana rufipes (as Hylarana rufipes - Inger et al. 2009).
This species was moved from the genus Hylarana to Chalcorana by Oliver et al. (2015).
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Chalcorana chalconota. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T78934311A78934546. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T78934311A78934546.en .Downloaded on 21 January 2019