Breviceps passmorei Minter, Netherlands & Du Preez, 2017
Passmore's Rain Frog, Ndumo Rain Frog
|Species Description: Minter L.R., Netherlands E.C., Du Preez L.J. 2017 Uncovering a hidden diversity: two new species of Breviceps (Anura: Brevicipitidae) from northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Zootaxa 4300: 195-216.|
Breviceps passmorei can be differentiated from other Breviceps species by, morphology, call, geography and habitat, and genetics. Breviceps passmorei has smaller eyes than B. branchi, B. macrops, and B. namaquensis. A facemask in B. passmorei separates it from B. acutirostris, B. fuscus, B. gibbosus, and B. macrops. Breviceps passmorei has a unique call duration and pulse that differentiates it from its relatives; B. passmorei has longer calls - with a mean duration of 0.305 s - compared to 0.193 s B. adspersus, 0.198 s in B. bagginsi, 0.05 s in B. mossambicus. However, it's call is shorter than B. verrucosis, which is 0.612 s. The strongly pulsed call of B. passmorei distinguishes it from the pulsatile calls of B. carruthersi and the tonal calls of B. macrops, B. namaquensis, B. poweri, and B. sopranus (Minter et al. 2017).
In life, B. passmorei is light brown to orange-brown with dark, scattered blotches that form a reticulated pattern on the dorsum. There are also 3 - 6 paravertebral patches and four dorsolateral patches. The tubercles are various shades of brown, bloack, and white with black tubercles in the regions near the spine and in dorsolateral patches and are unpigmented/white in the lateral regions. There is an interorbital bar and a light vertebral line that extends from the bar to the urostyle. The abdomen is white (Minter et al. 2017).
In preservative, the body is brown to dark grey and the blotches become dark. The paravertebral patches range from beige to dark grey. The dorsolateral patches are pale but distinct. The interobital bar is less conspicuous and ranges from beige to dark brown. The vertebral line ranges in distinctiveness (Minter et al. 2017).
There is little morphological variation, although the degree of dorsal granulation and coloration has some variation (Minter et al. 2017).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: South Africa
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Males usually call in the evening and night after heavy summer rain from both concealed (under vegetation) and exposed sites to attract females. The calls may be very strongly pulsed with 21 - 63 pulses and a pulse rate per second of 86.47–163.2. Condensed calls occur under optimum conditions in groups of 2 to 3 calls. Groups of calls last 0.411 - 0.638 seconds with the period between calls ranging from 0.824 - 3.058 seconds. The call rate ranged from 19.73 - 98.6 calls per minute with a dominant frequency range of 1690 - 2110 Hz. Individual call durations range from 0.192 - 0.432 seconds (Minter et al. 2017).
During amplexus, the skin produces an adhesive secretion (Minter et al. 2017).
Trends and Threats
Breviceps passmorei was named after Neville Passmore, for his great contributions and publications to South African herpetology in bioacoustics, particularly in frogs (Minter et al. 2017).
Heinicke, M.P., Beidoun, M.H., Nielsen, S.V., Bauer, A.M. (2021). “Phylogenetic analysis of ‘Breviceps adspersus’ documents B. passmorei Minter et al., 2017 in Limpopo Province, South Africa.” Herpetology Notes, 14: 397-406. [link]
Minter, L.R., Netherlands, E.C., Du Preez, L.H. (2017). "Uncovering a hidden diversity: two new species of Breviceps (Anura: Brevicipitidae) from northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa." Zootaxa, 4300.2, 195–216. [link]
Originally submitted by: Jingyi Miao, Ethan Lin, Selina Zhang (2022-06-06)
Description by: Jingyi Miao, Ethan Lin, Selina Zhang (updated 2022-06-06)
Distribution by: Jingyi Miao, Ethan Lin, Selina Zhang (updated 2022-06-06)
Life history by: Jingyi Miao, Ethan Lin, Selina Zhang (updated 2022-06-06)
Trends and threats by: Jingyi Miao, Ethan Lin, Selina Zhang (updated 2022-06-06)
Comments by: Jingyi Miao, Ethan Lin, Selina Zhang (updated 2022-06-06)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2022-06-06)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Breviceps passmorei: Passmore's Rain Frog <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/8666> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 24, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 24 Mar 2023.
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