Brachycephalus fuscolineatus Pie, Bornschein, Firkowski, Belmonte-Lopes & Ribeiro, 2015
|Species Description: Pie, Bornschein, Firkowski, Belmonte-Lopes & Ribeiro in: Ribeiro et al. (2015), Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil. PeerJ 3:e1011; DOI 10.7717/peerj.1011|
Brachycephalus fuscolineatus is a member of the B. pernix species group. For a diagnosis please see Ribeiro et al. 2015.
In life, the species is predominantly yellow to orange and has a dark band with indistinct edges that runs vertically along the spine of the frog from snout to the cloacal opening. This dark coloration varies in width and coverage between individuals, and may run into the limbs or irregularly spot throughout the trunk and head. The dark band may appear as black, brown, gray, or dark green in some individuals. The eyes are fully black. In preservative, the stripe does not change color but the dorsal and lateral surfaces become light gray while the ventral surface becomes pale cream (Ribeiro et al. 2015).
Between individuals, the dark dorsal stripe varies in width and in the shape (Ribeiro et al. 2015).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Little is known about B. fuscolineatus, however, the general behavior of Brachycephalus species are that they are terrestrial, diurnal, restricted to mountain tops, and found in leaf litter on dense forest floors (Pombal 1994).
Trends and Threats
The main threats to B. fuscolineatus populations is loss of their already restricted habitat and the use of herbicides. The eastern mountains of Santa Catarina, where this species is found, is under great ecological pressure for the installment of cell phone towers and power plants. Construction of these infrastructures and roads to the sites will also contribute to edge effects such as a decrease in the humidity of the forest, which the frogs depend on to survive. Another major threat to this species is the inevitable expansion of palm and eucalyptus plantations that are taking over much of Brazil’s rainforest. These plantations not only destroy habitat, but also introduce large amounts of herbicides into the habitat of B. fuscolineatus and has unknown consequences on their health. Tourism, and the waste from tourism, may also have a negative impact on the species (Bornschein et al. 2019 - Check, Diversity). Because of the limited range and threats to the species Bornschein et al. (2019 - Diversity) recommend a “Critically Endangered” IUCN Red List threat status.
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Bayesian Inference of 16S mtDNA found that B. fuscolineatus forms a polytomy with B. albolineatus and B. mirissiums. The next most closely related species is B. boticario (Pie et al. 2018).
The species epithet, “fuscolineatus” is from the Latin, “fuscus”, which means “dark-skinned” and “lineatus”, which means “to make straight like a line.” The name refers to the dark stripe that is present across the back of the species (Ribeiro et al. 2015).
Bornschein M.R., Teixeira L., Ribeiro L.F. (2019). “New record of Brachycephalus fuscolineatus Pie, Bornschein, Firkowski, Belmonte-Lopes & Ribeiro, 2015 (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from Santa Catarina state, Brazil.” Check List 15(3), 379–385. [link]
Bornschein, M. R., Pie, M. R., Teixeira, L. (2019). "Conservation status of Brachycephalus toadlets (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.” Diversity, 11(150), 1-29. doi: 10.3390/d11090150 [link]
Pie, M., Ribeiro, L., Confetti, A., Nadaline, M., and Bornschein, M. (2018). ''A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil.'' PeerJ, 6, e5683.
Pombal, J. P. Jr., Sazima, I., and Haddad, C. F. B. (1994). "Breeding behavior of the pumpkin toadlet, Brachycephalus ephippium (Brachycephalidae)." Journal of Herpetology, 28, 516-519. [link]
Ribeiro, L. F., Bornschein, M. R., Belmonte-Lopes, R., Firkowski, C. R., Morato, S. A., Pie, M. R. (2015). “Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil.” PeerJ 3, e1011. [link]
Originally submitted by: Michelle S. Koo (2022-07-24)
Description by: Taylor Vasquez, Emily Savercool, Eva Valero (updated 2022-08-10)
Distribution by: Taylor Vasquez, Emily Savercool, Eva Valero (updated 2022-08-10)
Life history by: Taylor Vasquez, Emily Savercool, Eva Valero (updated 2022-08-10)
Trends and threats by: Michelle S. Koo, Taylor Vasquez, Emily Savercool, Eva Valero (updated 2022-08-10)
Comments by: Taylor Vasquez, Emily Savercool, Eva Valero (updated 2022-08-10)
Edited by: Michelle S. Koo (2022-08-10)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Brachycephalus fuscolineatus <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/8340> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 21, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 21 Mar 2023.
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