Astylosternus montanus Amiet, 1978
|Species Description: Amiet , J.-L. (1977). "Les Astylosternus du Cameroun (Amphibia, Anura, Astylosternidae)." Annales de la Faculté des Sciences de Yaoundé, 23–24, 99–227.|
© 2013 Daniel Portik (1 of 1)
The tadpoles have a total length of ~73 mm, a body length of ~22 mm with a body length to total length ratio of 33.3 ± 1.0%. The ventral-fin-height to dorsal-fin-height ratio is 6.8%. The keratodont formula is 1:2+2/2+2:1. Anterior lip papillae are small and anterior to the angles of the mouth. The posterior lip papillae are in two rows of approximately 30 triangular papillae, slightly longer than wide with rounded tips. The rostral gap is large and the jaw sheaths are massive and serrated. The upper jaw is arched with a small medial projection and the lower jaw is V-shaped (Griesbaum et al. 2019).
On Mt. Nlonako, A. montanus was found more often on the forest floor and A. diadematus and A. perreti were found more often in streams (Plath et al. 2004; Herrmann et al. 2005).
Adult dorsal coloration is brown, beige, or olive with irregular, round black spots. There is a “tiara” design on the head similar to A. diadematus. The coloration change from dorsal to ventral is gradual with no spots or marbling on the flanks. The ventral color is pale yellow, and the throat is almost entirely covered with dark spots. Dark spots are also found on the interior of the hind limbs (Amiet 1977).
The tadpoles’ coloration is brownish, and the dorsal surface is darker than the ventral one, which is more yellow. The tail is a paler brown and has a small number of dark speckles. The fins are very pale brown and semi-transparent with a longitudinal row of small spots on the margin of the dorsal fin. The jaw sheaths are black (Griesbaum et al. 2019).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Cameroon, Nigeria
On Mt. Nlonako, A. montanus was found more often on the forest floor. While this species was found on the Obudu Plateau in Nigeria in the 1980’s (Gartshore, 1986), it has not been recovered in more recent surveys (Lea et al., 2005); populations reported in Reeder et al. (2011) for the Mambilla Plateau might represent A. montanus.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Male are found calling from rock cavities and sometimes from the water (Amiet 1977; IUCN 2022). Amiet (1977) described the call as "dlouk" or "hou" and "rrra."
On Mt. Nlonako and Mt Kupe, A. montanus occurs at the same sites as A. diadematus and A. perreti. On Mt. Nlonako, A. montanus was found more often on the forest floor and A. diadematus and A. perreti were found more often in streams (Plath et al. 2004; Herrmann et al. 2005).
Trends and Threats
Relation to Humans
Amiet, J.-L. (1977). ''Les Astylosternus du Cameroun (Amphibia Anura, Astylosterninae).'' Annales de la Faculté des Sciences de Yaoundé, 23/24, 99-227.
Blackburn, D. C., Hanken, J., Jenkins Jr, F. A. (2008). "Concealed weapons: erectile claws in African frogs." Biology Letters 4, 355–357. [link]
Bogart, J. P. and Tandy, M. (1981). ''Chromosome lineages in African frogs.'' Monitore Zoologico Italiano, N.S. Supplemento, 15(5), 55-91.
Channing, A., Rödel, M.-O. (2019). Field Guide to the Frogs and Other Amphibians of Africa. Penguin Random House South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa.
Doherty-Bone, T. M., Gvoždík, V. (2017). "The amphibians of Mount Oku, Cameroon: an updated species inventory and conservation review." ZooKeys, 643, 109–139. [link]
Gartshore, M.E. (1986). "The status of the montane herpetofauna of the Cameroon Highlands." Conservation of Cameroon montane forests. Report of the ICBP Cameroon Montane Forest Survey (Nov 1983 — Apr 1984). Stuart, S.N., eds., Chameleon Press, London.
Griesbaum, F., Hirschfeld, M., Barej, M. F., Schmitz, A., Rohrmoser, M., Dahmen, M., Mühlberer, F., Liedtke, H.C. Gonwouo, N.L., Doumbia, J., Rödel, M. O. (2019). "Tadpoles of three western African frog genera: Astylosternus Werner, 1898, Nyctibates Boulenger, 1904, and Scotobleps Boulenger, 1900 (Amphibia, Anura, Arthroleptidae)." Zoosystematics and Evolution, 95, 133–160. [link]
Herrmann, H.-W., Böhme, W., Herrmann, P.A., Plath, M., Schmitz, A., Solbach, M. (2005). ''African biodiversity hotspots: the amphibians of Mt. Nlonako, Cameroon.'' Salamandra, 41(1/2), 61–81.
Hofer U, Bersier L-F, Borcard D (1999). ''Spatial organization of a herpetofauna on an elevational gradient revealed by null model tests.'' Ecology, 80(3), 976–988. [link]
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2017). "Astylosternus montanus." The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T54419A49251040. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T54419A49251040.en. Accessed on 18 January 2022.
Lea, J. M., Luiselli, L., Politano, E. (2005). "Are there shifts in amphibian faunal composition in Nigerian landscapes undergoing long-term degradation? A case study from a montane environment." Revue d'écologie, 60, 65–76. [link]
Onadeko, A. B., Rodel, M. O., Egonmwan, R. I., Saliu, J. K. (2010). "Herpetological surveys of south-western and south-eastern regions of Nigeria." Zoologist, 8, 34–43. [link]
Plath M, Solbach M, Herrmann H-W (2004). ''Anuran habitat selection and temporal partitioning in a montane and submontane rainforest in southwestern Cameroon – first results.'' Salamandra (Frankf), 40, 239-260. [link]
Portik DM, Bell RC, Blackburn DC, Bauer AM, Barratt CD, Branch WR, Burger M, Channing A, Colston TJ, Conradie W, Dehlin JM, Drewes RC, Ernst R, Greenbaum E, Gvozdík V, Harvey J, Hillers A, Hirschfeld M, Jongsma GFM, Kielgast J, Kouete MT, Lawson LP, Leaché AD, Loader SP, Lötters S, van der Meijden A, Menegon M, Müller S, Nagy ZT, Ofori-Boateng C, Ohler A, Papenfuss TJ, Rößler D, SinschU, Rödel MO, Veith M, Vindum J, Zassi-Boulou AG, McGuire JA (2019). ''Sexual dichromatism drives diversification within a major radiation of African amphibians.'' Systematic Biology , 68(6), 859-875. [link]
Tchassem Fokoua, A. M., Gonwouo, L. N., Tamesse, J. L., Doherty-Bone, T. M. (2019). "Value of forest remnants for montane amphibians on the livestock grazed Mount Mbam, Cameroon." Amphibian & Reptile Conservation, 13, 68–81. [link]
Originally submitted by: Kaitlin E. Allen, Magali Zoungrana, David C. Blackburn (2022-04-27)
Description by: Kaitlin E. Allen, Magali Zoungrana, David C. Blackburn (updated 2022-04-27)
Distribution by: Kaitlin E. Allen, Magali Zoungrana, David C. Blackburn (updated 2022-04-27)
Life history by: Kaitlin E. Allen, Magali Zoungrana, David C. Blackburn (updated 2022-04-27)
Trends and threats by: Kaitlin E. Allen, Magali Zoungrana, David C. Blackburn (updated 2022-04-27)
Relation to humans by: Kaitlin E. Allen, Magali Zoungrana, David C. Blackburn (updated 2022-04-27)
Comments by: Kaitlin E. Allen, Magali Zoungrana, David C. Blackburn (updated 2022-04-27)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2022-04-27)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Astylosternus montanus <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/1484> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 26, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 26 Mar 2023.
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