This species occurs from the western flank of the Cordillera Central in Antioquia Department to the eastern flank of the same range in Caldas Department of Colombia. It has been recorded between 1,100 and 1,850 m asl. Its EOO is 9,565 km2 and it occurs in three to five locations, based on the main threats affecting the species.
Habitat and Ecology
This terrestrial species is found in the leaf litter or perching on the bases of tree trunks in humid montane forest. It can use a wide array of habitats, including degraded and fragmented forests and mature conserved forests (Mendoza Roldan 2017). It lays its eggs in leaf-litter and after hatching the tadpoles are carried by the male on its back to a water source, such as small natural pools or water accumulated inside of bromeliads.
It is an abundant species and its population is presumed to be stable. Two subpopulations are located on islands in the El Peñol-Guatapé Reservoir, Antioquia Department, which originated in 1978 because of the construction of the El-Peñol hydroelectric dam (Ríos et al. 2011).
The major threats to this species are habitat loss and degradation due to agriculture, livestock, logging and fire, and pollution as a result of the fumigation of crops. The species is also harvested illegally for the international pet trade.
It occurs in several small protected areas (La Forzosa, Bosques de ISAGEN in Granada, Bosques de EPM in Guatape). There is legislation in place to protect this species in the form of Decree INDERENA No. 39 of 9 July, 1985, that forbids the collection of Dendrobates spp. (Andinobates spp.) from the wild for breeding (or other purposes). It is protected under CITES Appendix II.
Measures need to be put in place to ensure levels of offtake of this species from the wild are sustainable.
More information is needed on this species' distribution, population status, ecology, and threats. There is a need for monitoring the population status of this species given the known threats.
Red List Status
Listed as Vulnerable because of its extent of occurrence (EOO) of 9,565 km2, it occurs in three to five threat-defined locations, and there is a continuing decline in the area and quality of its habitat due to agricultural activities, livestock, logging, fire and pollution.
This is a restricted concept of A. opisthomelas following the split of the broader concept into this and A. cassidyhornae (Amézquita et al. 2013).
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2017. Andinobates opisthomelas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T77318429A77318232. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T77318429A77318232.en