AmphibiaWeb - Ambystoma jeffersonianum
AMPHIBIAWEB
Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Green, 1827)
Jefferson Salamander
Subgenus: Xiphonura
family: Ambystomatidae
genus: Ambystoma
Species Description: Green, J. (1827). "An account of some new species of salamanders." Contributions of the Maclurian Lyceum to the Arts and Sciences 1: 3–8.

© 2012 Todd Pierson (1 of 51)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account Least Concern (LC)
NatureServe Use NatureServe Explorer to see status.
CITES No CITES Listing
National Status None
Regional Status None
Access Conservation Needs Assessment Report .

   

 

View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
View Bd and Bsal data (3 records).

Description
Ambystoma jeffersonianum is a long, slender salamander, ranging from 12.1 to 21 cm in length. Long digits and a wide snout help characterize this species. Bluish flecks often are scattered along the limbs and lower sides of the body, complementing the typical dark-brown or dark gray the species usually exhibits. The ventral stomach is lighter in color, usually gray.

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Canada, United States

U.S. state distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Vermont, West Virginia

Canadian province distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Ontario

 

View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
View Bd and Bsal data (3 records).
This species is primarily located on the East Coast of the United States, ranging from west New England and southern New York to Virginia and Indiana. Typical habitats consist of swamps and ponds of the deciduous forest regions where A. jeffersonianum may often be found under debris.

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
During breeding season, which lasts from March to April, adults characteristically migrate to ponds. Cylindrical masses of 10-15 eggs a piece are laid by the female, underwater, and attached to slender twigs. The hatching period will occur 30-45 days later where the larvae are typically 13 mm long. Transformation occurs from the months of July to September where 51 to 71 mm of growth are observed.

Comments
This species account was based off the information in the National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians (1996).

In the Ambystoma genus, there are unisexual populations that can hybridize with A. jeffersonianum, A. laterale, A. texanum, A. trigrinum, and A. barbouri to create ploidy-elevated offspring. They can range from diploid to pentaploid and there are over 20 different nuclear genomic combinations. Most Ambystoma unisexuals have an A. laterale nuclear genome, while the other types of donated genomes can replace each other, as seen in recent populations of A. barbouri being the replacement donor for A. jeffersonianum. Ambystoma unisexuals’ mtDNA is most similar to A. barbouri, however A. barbouri is the least common sperm donor. Tetraploid and pentaploid unisexuals tend to have a higher mortality rate than triploid unisexuals (Bogart et al. 2009).

References

Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. (1996). National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Knopf, New York, NY.

Bogart, JP, Bartoszek, J, Noble, DWA, Bi, K (2009). "Sex in unisexual salamanders: discovery of a new sperm donor with ancient affinities." Heredity, 103, 483-493. [link]



Originally submitted by: Kevin Gin (first posted 2003-11-25)
Description by: Nessa Kmetec (updated 2022-10-05)
Distribution by: Nessa Kmetec (updated 2022-10-05)
Life history by: Nessa Kmetec (updated 2022-10-05)
Comments by: Nessa Kmetec (updated 2022-10-05)

Edited by: Vance T. Vredenburg (2022-10-05)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Ambystoma jeffersonianum: Jefferson Salamander <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/3835> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Feb 5, 2023.



Feedback or comments about this page.

 

Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 5 Feb 2023.

AmphibiaWeb's policy on data use.