Adelophryne glandulata Lourenço de Moraes, Ferreira, Fouquet & Bastos, 2014
Teresensis Flea Frog; Razinha-Pulga Teresensis
|Species Description: Lourenco-de-Moraes R, Ferreira RB, Fouquet A, Bastos RP 2014 A new diminutive frog species of Adelophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 3846: 348-360.|
© 2022 Mauro Teixeira Jr (1 of 2)
Adelophryne glandulata can be differentiated from other species in its genus by its smaller size. The maximum snout to vent length recorded for A. glandulata is 14 mm (Silviera et. al 2019) Additionally, A. glandulata’s shagreened dorsum with small, rounded tubercles sets it apart from A. baturitensis, A. meridionalis, A. pachydactyla (which are smooth), A. mucronatus (smooth with scattered small granules), A. adiastola (shagreened to granular), and A. patamona (tuberculated). Adelophryne glandulata has an indistinct tympanum, setting it apart from: A. baturitensis, A. adiastola, A. gutturosa, A. maranguapensis, A. mucronatus, A. pachydactyla, and A. patamona, which all having distinct tympanums (Lourenco-De-Moraes et al. 2014). Adelophryne glandulata has the unique subdigital pad formula of 1 – 2 – 2 - 1 not seen in any other species in the genus: A. pachydactyla is 2 – 3 – 4 - 2; A. maranguapensis is 1 – 1 – 2 - 2; A. adiastola, A. gutturosa, A. meridionalis, and A. patamona are 1 – 1 – 2 - 1; A. mucronatus is 1 – 2 – 3. - 1. Adelophryne glandulata has two phalanges in finger IV (rather than three), setting it apart from A. baturitensis, A. gutturosa, A. maranguapensis, A. mucronatus, and A. patamona (Lourenco-De-Moraes et al. 2014).
More specifically, A. glandulata lacks the discs or circumferential grooves on its fingers seen in A. baturitensis and A. maranguapensis. Adelophryne glandulata has subdigital pads, but lacks the subarticular tubercles seen in A. baturitensis. And A. glandulata has disc on toes II, III, IV and V with circumferential grooves, while A. meridionalis only has circumferential grooves on toe IV. Adelophyrne meridionalis also lacks the glandular ridge line and small tubercles which A. glandulata possesses (Lourenco-De-Moraes et al. 2014; Silviera et. al 2019).
*Hidden because, where did this come from?!?* while others in the genus are as follows: A. baturitensis - 16.3 mm, A. gutturosa - 16.0 mm, A. maranguapensis - 17.4 mm, A. mucronatus - 14.9 mm, A. patamona - 23 mm. The presence of a glandular ridge also serves as a distinctive characteristic since the only other species having it is A. gutturosa which is larger than typical A. glandulata individuals.
COLORATION:In life, the dorsum of A. glandulata can be golden brown, dark brown, or reddish-brown. The lores are dark brown, with a dark brown stripe that extends along the legs and to the groin. White speckling is found on the dorsum, flanks, and dorsal surface of limbs. Two dark brown lines, whose width can vary, are found on the mid-dorsum. The thigh and tibia have one or two brown bands. The vent is dark and speckled with white dots. The iris is either reddish-brown or dark brown, reticulated in black. Preserved specimens will retain the same color pattern, albeit a darker shade than life (Lourenco-De-Moraes et al. 2014).
The dorsal coloration of A. glandulata can vary from golden brown to dark brown, to reddish-brown. There is no sexual dimorphism when it comes to coloration but there is some sex based differences in the variance of limb and head features. Hindlimb-length of males vary more than females. Females vary more in head feature measurements than males. There is also variance in the number or presence of the rounded glandular series posterior to the eye (Lourenco-De-Moraes et al. 2014).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Although vocal sacs are present in this species, as of 2021, no audible calls have been reported (Lourenco-De-Moraes et al. 2014).
Females have been observed carrying eggs in November, which suggests that reproduction occurs during the rainy season. Observed egg clutch sizes were estimated to contain three to eight eggs with an average size of 2.0 mm in diameter. Due to the relatively large egg size and small clutch size, they are expected to exhibit direct development (Lourenco-De-Moraes et al. 2014).
This species, when threatened, displays short, quick, and multidirectional hops to flee from predators. Due to their dorsal cryptic coloration, they may also rely on camouflage. This species may partake in mouth gaping, but it does not have any defensive vocalization nor has been seen biting (Ferreira 2019).
Observed prey includes ants and beetles (Lourenco-De-Moraes et al. 2014).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
One of the distinguishing features of this species is the glandular ridge running from the back part of the eye where the forelimb meets the body. Due to this notable characteristic, the species was given the Latin epithet “glandulata”, meaning “glandular” (Lourenco-de-Moraes et al. 2014).
Ferreira, R. B., Lourenco-de-Moraes, R., Zocca, C., Duca, C., Beard, K. H., Brodie, E. D. (2019). "Antipredator mechanisms of post-metamorphic anurans: A global database and classification system." Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 73(5), 69. [link]
Ferreira, R.B. (2015). "Ecology, behavior and taxonomy of anurans from Brazil's Atlantic Forest." Utah State University, PhD dissertation. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/4466/ [link]
Lourenco-de-Moraes, R., Dias, I. R., Mira-Mendes, C. V., Oliveira, R. M. de, Barth, A., Ruas, D. S., Vences, M., Solé, M., Bastos, R. P. (2018). "Diversity of miniaturized frogs of the genus Adelophryne (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae): A new species from the Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil." PLOS ONE, 13(9), e0201781. [link]
Lourenco-de-Moraes, R., Ferreira, R., Fouquet, A., Bastos, R. (2014). "A new diminutive frog species of Adelophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil." Zootaxa, 3846(3), 348–360. [link]
Silveira, A. L., Rievers, C. R., Ribeiro, L. S. V. B., Dornas, T. T., Fernandes, T. N. (2019). "Taxonomic identity of Adelophryne (Anura, Eleutherodactylidae) populations in the Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais, Brazil." Herpetology Notes, 12, 311-317. [link]
Originally submitted by: Alicia Ayala, Benjamin Walker, Cameron Yee (2021-06-08)
Description by: Alicia Ayala, Benjamin Walker, Cameron Yee (updated 2021-06-08)
Distribution by: Alicia Ayala, Benjamin Walker, Cameron Yee (updated 2021-06-08)
Life history by: Alicia Ayala, Benjamin Walker, Cameron Yee (updated 2021-06-08)
Trends and threats by: Alicia Ayala, Benjamin Walker, Cameron Yee (updated 2021-06-08)
Comments by: Alicia Ayala, Benjamin Walker, Cameron Yee (updated 2021-06-08)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2021-06-08)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2021 Adelophryne glandulata: Teresensis Flea Frog; Razinha-Pulga Teresensis <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/8211> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 26, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 26 Mar 2023.
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