AMPHIBIAWEB
Petropedetes parkeri
family: Petropedetidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
CITES
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria

 

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

   

From the Encyclopedia of Life account:

Etymology

The species was named in honour of Mr. Hampton Wildman Parker, former curator of the Natural History Museum, who conducted a meticulous morphological study of specimens of this species from the Sanderson collection.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Taxonomic Notes

Petropedetes parkeri has long been confused with “P. newtonii” (now P. vulpiae) and P. johnstoni (Barej et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Distribution

Barej et al. (2010) can only assign populations from western Cameroon and eastern Nigeria to this species with certainty.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Morphology

This is a large-sized Petropedetes with a robust body. Mean head width in males is approximately 44% of SUL, in females about 42%. Snout in lateral view is short and rounded. Canthus rostralis is slightly rounded but distinct. Loreal region is concave. Eye diameter is approximately 1.3 times the eye-narial distance. Nostril is closer to the snout-tip than to eye. The tympanum is usually larger than eye in males and is always smaller in females (tympanum / eye in males: 0.73-1.39, in females: 0.60–0.89). The supratympanic fold is distinct. Fingers are slender with T-shaped tips. Relative length of fingers is as follows: III > IV > II > I. Manual subarticular tubercles are single. A palmar tubercle and thenar tubercle are present; the palmar tubercle may be indistinct. Dorsum with smaller warts than flanks, and a few larger, elongated warts are present on the dorsum. The ventral skin is smooth. The femora are long; mean femur length in males are 50% of SUL, in females 51%. The mean foot length in both sexes is 74% of SUL. The upper hind limbs are of moderate width, and the lower hind limbs are slender. Relative length of toes is as follows: IV > III > V > II > I. Webbing is rudimentary with the following formula: 1 (1) 2 (1-1) or 2 (1.25-1) 3 (2-2) 4 (3-3) 5 (2). The tympanic papilla in males is broad and fleshy with oval basis and is closer to upper border than centre of tympanum. Forearm hypertrophy is strongly developed in males. A carpal spike is present in males. Spinosities are well-developed on the throat and forearms, and they are scattered on the flanks and dorsum in males. Femoral glands are small in both sexes; these glands are slightly bigger in males (femoral gland / femur in males: 0.18–0.27, in females: 0.16–0.22; Barej et al., 2010).

Dorsum and flanks are olive or brownish and dark marbled with diffuse brown-olive spots. The throat is dirty whitish and can be darker than belly, which is whitish and slightly translucent. Femora and lower legs have large darker spots divided by thin, bright transversal bars. The ventral surfaces of the limbs are whitish or pale greenish. Iris is golden with white-green shades. Femoral glands are the same color as the hind limbs: pale orange or greenish. Coloration in preservation is similar to that in life: dorsum is uniform brown; belly is whitish, with minuscule speckles (only recognizable under microscope); throat is dirty whitish or pale brown (Barej et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Size

Males are distinctly larger than females; SUL in males range from 38.0 to 74.3 mm, and in females the range from 34.1 to 61.3 mm (Barej et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Diagnostic Description

This is a large-sized Petropedetes with a robust body shape. The tympanum is round; it is larger than eye diameter in males and smaller in females. Webbing is rudimentary. Breeding males exhibit the following characteristics: broad and fleshy tympanic papilla that is close to the upper border of the tympanum, strongly developed forearm hypertrophy, carpal spike, well-developed spinosities on the throat and forearms, with some scattered on flanks and dorsum; small femoral glands that are the same color as the limbs and shifted slightly to the posterior side of the leg (Barej et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Activity and Special Behaviors

Sanderson (1936, referred to as P. johnstoni) calls this species arboreal, because he found them on lower, broadened leafs, in shade.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Advertisement Call

The advertisement call of P. parkeri has been published by Narins et al. (2001).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Reproduction

The breeding season is said to take place in the rainy season (Parker 1936, referred to as P. johnstoni). The species has been found on wet, mossy rocks in the forest; the large rocks were crossed by runlets (Barej et al., 2010). According to Sanderson (1936, referred to as P. johnstoni) , adults aggregate in the breeding season on humid rocky surfaces in rough areas with torrent water, while they live in the forest on leaves outside the breeding season.

Narins et al. (2001) describe a part of the courtship behaviour, including the female striking the male’s head with her foreleg during amplexus. These authors speculate that this behaviour is connected with secretion of glands in the male tympanal papilla. The small eggs are deposited at the beginning of the rainy season on surfaces of stones within the splash zone. Metamorphosis in P. parkeri is finished before the end of the rains or at the beginning of the dry season (Parker, 1936).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Phylogenetics

The uncorrected p-distances of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA fragment gave the following results for Petropedetes parkeri: interspecific comparison between P. parkeri and all other Central African Petropedetes taxa ranged between 5.94%-12.39%, while the intraspecific variation within P. parkeri was much lower at 0.00%-0.22% (N= 4; Barej et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/