AMPHIBIAWEB

Sexual Dichromatism in Frogs - Species List


By Rayna Bell, Cornell University, August 2012

Hyperolius ocellatus pair
Hyperolius ocellatus
© Rayna Bell

Two classes of dichromatism, dynamic and ontogenetic, are distinguished. Dynamic sexual dichromatism is especially prevalent in the Ranidae, Bufonidae and Hylidae but due to its ephemeral nature, this class of dichromatism is likely under-documented in the literature and may be far more common among frogs. In particular, we anticipate future records of dynamic dichromatism within lineages where it has already been documented and is fairly common (e.g. Bufonidae). Ontogenetic dichromatism appears to be more taxonomically widespread but the vast majority of these dichromatic species are in the Hyperoliidae, Bufonidae and Hylidae.

Bell, R.C., Zamudio K.R. 2012 Sexual dichromatism in frogs: natural selection, sexual selection, and unexpected diversity. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B.

  • Dynamic Dichromatic Species
  • Ontogenetic Dichromatic Species

  • Species displaying Dynamic Dichromatism

    Family Species Distribution Description Reference
    Bufonidae Amietophrynus kisoloensis Tropical breeding male yellow Channing 2001
    Bufo bufo Temperate breeding male more uniform/yellow, female with spots Kuzmin 1999
    Bufo japonicus Temperate breeding male yellow Maeda & Matsui 1990
    Incilius luetkenii Tropical breeding male yellow Doucet & Mennill 2010
    Pseudepidalea viridis Temperate breeding male with green dorsal background, female grayish Arnold 2002
    Dendrobatidae
    Mannophryne trinitatis Tropical male turns black while calling Duellman & Trueb 1986
    Dicroglossidae-Dicroglossinae Hoplobatrachus tigerinus Tropical breeding male yellow Glaw & Vences 2007
    Hylidae-Hylinae Dendropsophus minutus Tropical breeding male yellow A. Lima (pers comm)
    Hypsiboas fasciatus Tropical breeding male brighter A. Lima (pers comm)
    Hypsiboas multifasciatus Tropical breeding male brighter A. Lima (pers comm)
    Isthmohyla pseudopuma Tropical breeding male yellow Savage 2002
    Osteocephalus leprieurii Tropical breeding male yellow Sztatecsny et al. 2010
    Scinax fuscovarius Tropical breeding male brighter C.F.B. Haddad (pers comm)
    Scinax hayii Tropical breeding male brighter C.F.B. Haddad (pers comm)
    Scinax rizibilis Tropical breeding male brighter C.F.B. Haddad (pers comm)
    Hylidae-Pelodryadinae Litoria jungguy Tropical breeding male yellow Tyler & Knight 2009
    Litoria lesueuri Tropical breeding male yellow Tyler & Knight 2009
    Litoria wilcoxii Tropical breeding male yellow Tyler & Knight 2009
    Mantellidae-Laliostominae Aglyptodactylus madagascariensis Tropical breeding male yellow Glaw & Vences 2007
    Aglyptodactylus securifer Tropical breeding male yellow Glaw & Vences 2007
    Mantellidae-Mantellinae Guibemantis liber Tropical breeding male black Glaw & Vences 2007
    Phrynobatrachidae Phrynobatrachus latifrons Tropical breeding male bright yellow or green Rödel 2000
    Phrynobatrachus natalensis Tropical breeding male with green dorsal patches Rödel 2000
    Ranidae Clinotarsus curtipes Tropical breeding male yellow B. Das (pers comm)
    Hylarana aurata Tropical breeding male yellow Gunther 2004
    Hylarana grisea Tropical breeding male yellow S. Richards (pers comm)
    Hylarana volkerjane Tropical breeding male yellow Gunther 2004
    Rana arvalis Temperate breeding male blue Arnold 2002
    Rana graeca Temperate breeding male black/brown Valakos et al. 2008
    Rana sylvatica Temperate breeding male darker Harding 1997
    Rana temporaria Temperate breeding male grey Arnold 2002


    Species displaying Ontogenetic Dichromatism

    Family Species Distribution Description Reference
    Alsodidae
    Hylorina sylvatica Tropical Males brighter Barrio 1967
    Arthroleptidae-Leptopelinae
    Leptopelis concolor Tropical Males brown/green; Females tan/brown Passmore & Carruthers 1979
    Leptopelis flavomaculatus Tropical Males green with yellow spots; Females uniform green Harper et al. 2010
    Leptopelis notatus Tropical Males green/tan; Females green Schiotz 1999
    Leptopelis parkeri Tropical Males yellow pattern; Females uniform color Schiotz 1999
    Leptopelis vermiculatus Tropical Males green; Females brown Schiotz 1999
    Bufonidae
    Amietophrynus kassasii Tropical Males yellower with fewer spots Baha El Din 2006
    Amietophrynus xeros Tropical Females more contrasting pattern Rödel 2000
    Anaxyrus americanus Temperate Males yellower Wright & Wright 1949
    Anaxyrus boreas Temperate Males less spotted Elliot et al. 2009
    Anaxyrus canorus Temperate Males yellow-green to olive; Females gray, tan or brown with black spots Karlstrom 1973
    Atelopus chiriquiensis Tropical Males yellow; Females dark with red/white spots Savage 2002
    Atelopus senex Tropical Males uniform; Females patterned Savage 2002
    Atelopus varius Tropical Males more uniform; Females more patterned Savage 1972
    Incilius aurarius Tropical Males orange; Females olive with brown or black markings Mendelson et al 2012
    Incilius marmoreus Temperate Females green middorsal mark Duellman & Trueb 1986
    Incilius melanochlorus Tropical Females spots/lines Savage 2002
    Incilius periglenes Tropical Males bright orange; Females olive to black with red spots Savage 1966
    Mertensophryne taitana Tropical Males mid-dorsal pattern of 3 dark blotches; Females reddish-brown Stewart 1967
    Nectophrynoides tornieri Tropical Males brown/red; Females rusty red Channing & Howell 2006
    Pedostibes hosii Tropical Males brown; Females green with spots Inger & Stuebing 1997
    Peltophryne lemur Tropical Males yellower Matos-Torres 2006
    Pseudepidalea sicula Temperate Females more contrasting pattern Stöck et al. 2008
    Rhinella icterica Tropical Males bright green/yellow Haddad et al. 2008
    Rhinella marina Tropical Males yellow; Females brown spots Easteal 1963
    Rhinella veredas Tropical Males yellow; Females brown/green Brandăo et al. 2007
    Rhinella yanachaga Tropical Males dark brown/green; Females tan/brown Lehr et al. 2007
    Werneria preussi Tropical Females dorsolateral stripe Duellman & Trueb 1986
    Craugastoridae-Pristimantinae
    Pristimantis bicolor Tropical Males red on legs; Femalesyellow on legs Rueda & Lynch 1983
    Pristimantis erythropleura Tropical Males yellow spots on legs; Females orange-pink spots on legs Lynch 1992
    Pristimantis factiosus Tropical Males yellow spots on legs; Females orange-pink spots on legs Lynch & Rueda 1998
    Dendrobatidae
    Oophaga pumilio Tropical Males brighter Mann & Cummings 2009
    Hemiphractidae
    Gastrotheca andaquiensis Tropical Males brown; Females green Hoffman & Blouin 2000
    Hylidae-Hylinae
    Dendropsophus bokermanni Tropical Males lateral marking; Females dorsolateral striped Riviero 1969
    Dendropsophus leucophyllatus Tropical Males lateral marking; Females dorsolateral striped Riviero 1969
    Dendropsophus parviceps Tropical Females dorsolateral stripe Duellman & Trueb 1986
    Hypsiboas boans Tropical Males brown; Females orange/brown A. Lima (pers comm)
    Isthmohyla calypsa Tropical Females dark mottling Savage 2002
    Scinax ruber Tropical Males yellow; Females brown A. Lima (pers comm)
    Triprion petasatus Tropical Males olive green; Females tan/olive brown Duellman 2001
    Hyperoliidae
    Cryptothylax greshoffi Tropical Females redder Schiotz 1999
    Heterixalus alboguttatus Tropical Males uniform; Females spotted Schiotz 1999
    Heterixalus tricolor Tropical Males uniform; Females spotted Schiotz 1999
    Heterixalus variabilis Tropical Males inconspicuous; Females yellow with black markings Glaw & Vences 1994
    Hyperolius argus Tropical Males pale green; Females pale to dark brown with white spots Stewart 1967
    Hyperolius bocagei (kachalolae) Tropical Females redder Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius castaneus Tropical Males white dorso-lateral stripe; Females stripe absent Laurent 1950
    Hyperolius cinnamomeoventris Tropical Males brown or green with dorso-lateral stripe; Females uniform green Laurent 1950
    Hyperolius concolor Tropical Males dorsolateral line Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius discodactylus Tropical Males white stripe on sides and back; Females stripe absent Laurent 1950
    Hyperolius fusciventris Tropical Males light green with stripe; Females solid green Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius glandicolor Tropical Males hourglass pattern; Females dark dorsum with white spots Schiotz 1971
    Hyperolius guttulatus Tropical Males green with stripe; Females dark brown with spots Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius viridiflavus karissimbiensis Tropical Males dorsal pattern; Females uniform Laurent 1950
    Hyperolius kivuensis Tropical Males three dorso-lateral stripes; Females stripes absent Laurent 1950
    Hyperolius lateralis Tropical Males brown/green with stripe; Females solid green Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius mariae Tropical Males hourglass pattern; Females uniform yellow or brown Schiotz 1971
    Hyperolius marmoratus Tropical Males brown with hourglass; Females uniform yellow/brown with four dark stripes Stewart 1967
    Hyperolius nasutus Tropical Males dorso-medial and dorso-lateral stripes; Females stripes absent Laurent 1950
    Hyperolius ocellatus Tropical Males green with dorsolateral stripes; Females silver to red-brown with dark spots Laurent 1950
    Hyperolius pardalis Tropical Males uniform; Females spotted Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius parkeri Tropical Males white lines; Females solid green Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius phantasticus Tropical Males green; Females yellow Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius pickersgilli Tropical Males brown; Females lime-green Channing 2001
    Hyperolius picturatus Tropical Males hourglass pattern; Females solid Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius platyceps Tropical Males silver; Females green Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius quinquevittatus Tropical Males gold/brown with stripes; Females green with lateral stripes Laurent 1957
    Hyperolius riggenbachi Tropical Males green with stripe; Females red/black/yellow patterns Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius spatzi Tropical Males white; Females light grey with black spots Schiotz 1971
    Hyperolius tuberculatus Tropical Males hourglass pattern; Females grey with black spots Schiotz 1971
    Hyperolius tuberilinguis Tropical Males brown or mottled green; Females bright green Stewart 1967
    Hyperolius viridiflavus viridiflavus Tropical Males brown; Females green Laurent 1950
    Hyperolius wermuthi Tropical Males light green; Females red stripe Schiotz 1999
    Hyperolius zonatus Tropical Males brown with bars; Females uniform and yellowish Schiotz 1999
    Taychynemis seychellensis Tropical Males brown; Females green Nussbaum & Wu 1995
    Mantellidae-Boophinae
    Boophis albilabris Tropical Females more brownish spots Glaw & Vences 2007
    Boophis laurenti Tropical Males grey; Females brown Glaw & Vences 2007
    Boophis microtympanum Tropical Males green; Females yellow-green Glaw & Vences 1994
    Boophis pauliani Tropical Males green; Females brown Glaw & Vences 1994
    Mantellidae-Mantellinae
    Blommersia angolafa Tropical Males yellow; Females brown Andreone et al. 2010
    Microhylidae-Dyscophinae
    Dyscophus antongilii Tropical Males yellow; Females red Glaw & Vences 2007
    Dyscophus guineti Tropical Males yellow; Females red Glaw & Vences 2007
    Microhylidae-Microhylinae
    Ramanella variegata Tropical Males with cream colored spots; Females solid Dutta & Manamendra-Arachchi 1996
    Microhylidae-Scaphiophryninae
    Scaphiophryne gottlebei Tropical Females brighter colored than male Glaw & Vences 1994
    Pelodytidae
    Pelodytes caucasicus Temperate Males darker coloration than female Kuzmin 1999
    Pyxicephallinae
    Pyxicephalus edulis Tropical Males green; Females brown Rödel 2000
    Ranidae
    Rana hosii Tropical Males green; Females green/tan Manthey & Grossman 1997
    Rana longicrus Tropical Males yellow/brown; Females red Lue 1990
    Rana septentrionalis Temperate Females dark pigmentation in reticulate pattern Kramek & Stewart 1980
    Rana vaillanti Tropical Males green; Females grey/brown Ramirez et al. 1998
    Sanguirana aurantipunctata Tropical Males green; Females green with orange spots Fuiten et al. 2011
    Rhacophoridae-Rhacophorinae
    Raorchestes chromasynchysi Tropical Males yellow/brown; Females green Vijayakumar (pers comm)
    Scaphiopodidae
    Scaphiopus couchii Temperate Males yellower Stebbins 2003

     


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