AmphibiaWeb - Hyperoliidae
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  Hyperoliidae (see family information on Tree of Life site)

223 species in 18 genera

African Tree Frogs

The family Hyperoliidae consists of 18 genera and over 200 species. The diversity of hyperoliids is restricted to sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, and several islands. One genus, Heterixalus, is endemic to Madagascar. Another genus, Tachycnemis, is found only in the Seychelles Islands. One of the most basal genera, Kassina (running frogs), is terrestrial, but most remaining genera are arboreal (the vernacular name of the family refers to the sedge and bush frogs). Tadpoles typically inhabit ponds, or possibly slow-moving parts of streams, and usually have large tailfins. Many species exhibit bright colors and striking patterns, which are sexually dimorphic in some species. One example is Hyperolius argus, which has been used to study the effects of estrogen-like compounds on development of reproductive organs and external secondary sex features. Males of nearly all species have a prominent gular pad and compete over calling sites. Acanthixalus may communicate via pheromones rather than typical advertisement calls.

Morphological characters for this group are: 1) nuptial pads absent; 2) posterolateral process of hyoid absent; 3) sternum cartilaginous; 4) dentomentalis muscle present; 5) pupil vertical in most. (account by David Blackburn)

Taxonomy is still unsettled for some groups within Hyperoliidae, particularly the following:

The Hyperolius nasutus group, consisting of H. nasutus, H. acuticeps, H. adspersus, H. igbettensis, H. benguellensis, and possibly H. lamottei and H. viridis. Both species delimitation and nomenclature are under debate. For a brief discussion, see the account for H. acuticeps.

The Hyperolius viridiflavus superspecies, where it is generally accepted that the group consists of several biological species, but where the species delimitation has not been settled. The superspecies is here treated as an entity under the name H. viridiflavus, and the forms which are regarded by some as full species are treated also under their respective names: H. angolensis, H. glandicolor, H. marginatus, H. mariae, H. marmoratus, H. nitidulus, H. pyrrhodichtyon, H. reesi, H. rhodesianus, H. sheldricki, H. swynnertoni, and H. viridiflavus.

The Afrixalus fulvovittatus complex, which probably consists of several cryptic species. In West Africa, the restricted western farmbush form A. fulvovittatus and the widespread savanna form A. vittiger are reasonably well separated. From Cameroun eastwards the taxonomy is unclear, with the names A. vittiger, A. quadrivittatus, and A. brevipalmatus used in recent literature.

The "Eastern Dwarf" Afrixalus are a bewildering group of small, savanna-living forms. The taxonomy used here follows the latest revision, that of Pickersgill (2007). This group consists of Afrixalus aureus, A. crotalus, A. delicatus, A. knysnae, A. morerei, A. septentrionalis, A. spinifrons, and A. stuhlmanni. (account by Arne Schiøtz)


Hyperolius argus
Photo by Robert C. Drewes
(Click for details)


Afrixalus quadrivittatus
Photo by David Blackburn
(Click for details)

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Genus Acanthixalus (2 species)
Acanthixalus sonjae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Acanthixalus spinosus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Afrixalus (31 species)
Afrixalus aureus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus clarkei AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus delicatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus dorsalis AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Afrixalus dorsimaculatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Afrixalus enseticola AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus equatorialis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus fornasini AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus fulvovittatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus knysnae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus lacteus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus laevis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus leucostictus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Afrixalus lindholmi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Afrixalus morerei AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus nigeriensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus orophilus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus osorioi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus paradorsalis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus quadrivittatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus schneideri AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Afrixalus septentrionalis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Afrixalus spinifrons AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus stuhlmanni AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus sylvaticus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus uluguruensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus upembae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Afrixalus vibekensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Afrixalus vittiger AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Afrixalus weidholzi AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Afrixalus wittei AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Alexteroon (3 species)
Alexteroon hypsiphonus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Alexteroon jynx AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Alexteroon obstetricans AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Arlequinus (1 species)
Arlequinus krebsi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Callixalus (1 species)
Callixalus pictus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Chlorolius (1 species)
Chlorolius koehleri AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Chrysobatrachus (1 species)
Chrysobatrachus cupreonitens AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Cryptothylax (2 species)
Cryptothylax greshoffii AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Cryptothylax minutus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Heterixalus (11 species)
Heterixalus alboguttatus AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Heterixalus andrakata AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Heterixalus betsileo AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Heterixalus boettgeri AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Heterixalus carbonei AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Heterixalus luteostriatus AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Heterixalus madagascariensis AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Heterixalus punctatus AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Heterixalus rutenbergi AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Heterixalus tricolor AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Heterixalus variabilis AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video

Genus Hyperolius (143 species)
Hyperolius acuticephalus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius acuticeps AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius acutirostris AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius ademetzi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius adspersus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius albofrenatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius angolensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius argus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius atrigularis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius balfouri AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius baumanni AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius benguellensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius bicolor AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius bobirensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius bolifambae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius bopeleti AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius brachiofasciatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius camerunensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius castaneus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius chabanaudi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius chelaensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius chlorosteus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius chrysogaster AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius cinereus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius cinnamomeoventris AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius concolor AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius constellatus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius cystocandicans AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius dartevellei no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius diaphanus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius dintelmanni AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius discodactylus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius endjami AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius fasciatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius ferreirai AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius ferrugineus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius friedemanni no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius frontalis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius fuscigula AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius fusciventris AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius ghesquieri AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius glandicolor no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius gularis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius guttulatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius horstockii AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius houyi AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius howelli no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius hutsebauti AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius igbettensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius inornatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius inyangae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius jackie no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius jacobseni no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius kachalolae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius kibarae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius kihangensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius kivuensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius kuligae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius lamottei AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius langi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius lateralis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius laticeps AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius laurenti AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius leleupi AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius leucotaenius AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius lucani AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius lupiroensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius maestus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius major AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius marginatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius mariae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius marmoratus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius minutissimus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius mitchelli AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius molleri AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius montanus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius mosaicus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius nasicus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius nasutus AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Hyperolius nienokouensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius nimbae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius nitidulus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius obscurus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius occidentalis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius ocellatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius orkarkarri AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius parallelus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius pardalis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius parkeri AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius phantasticus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius pickersgilli AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius picturatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius pictus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius platyceps AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius polli AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius polystictus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius poweri no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius protchei AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius pseudargus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius puncticulatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius pusillus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius pustulifer AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius pyrrhodictyon no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius quadratomaculatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius quinquevittatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius raveni AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius raymondi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius reesi AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius rhizophilus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius rhodesianus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius riggenbachi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius robustus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius rubrovermiculatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius rwandae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius sankuruensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius schoutedeni AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius seabrai AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius semidiscus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius sheldricki AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius soror AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius spatzi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius spinigularis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius steindachneri AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius stenodactylus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius substriatus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius swynnertoni no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius sylvaticus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius tanneri AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius thomensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius thoracotuberculatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius tornieri AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius torrentis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius tuberculatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius tuberilinguis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius veithi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius vilhenai AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius viridiflavus AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Hyperolius viridigulosus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius viridis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius watsonae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius wermuthi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Hyperolius xenorhinus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Hyperolius zonatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Kassina (16 species)
Kassina arboricola AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Kassina cassinoides AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Kassina cochranae AmphibiaWeb account no photos sound/video
Kassina decorata AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Kassina fusca AmphibiaWeb account no photos sound/video
Kassina jozani AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Kassina kuvangensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Kassina lamottei AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Kassina maculata AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Kassina maculifer AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Kassina maculosa AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Kassina mertensi AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Kassina schioetzi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Kassina senegalensis AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Kassina somalica AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Kassina wazae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Kassinula (1 species)
Kassinula wittei AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Morerella (1 species)
Morerella cyanophthalma no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Opisthothylax (1 species)
Opisthothylax immaculatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Paracassina (2 species)
Paracassina kounhiensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Paracassina obscura AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Phlyctimantis (4 species)
Phlyctimantis boulengeri AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Phlyctimantis keithae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Phlyctimantis leonardi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Phlyctimantis verrucosus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Semnodactylus (1 species)
Semnodactylus wealii AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Tachycnemis (1 species)
Tachycnemis seychellensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video


Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. 2014. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: http://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed: 2014).

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