AMPHIBIAWEB
Hyperolius mariae
family: Hyperoliidae

© 2016 Dr. Joachim Nerz (1 of 8)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
CITES
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Congo, the Democratic Republic of the, Kenya, Tanzania, United Republic of, Zambia

 

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

   

From the Encyclopedia of Life account:

Etymology

Arthur Loveridge named this species for his wife Mary.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Taxonomic Notes

H. mariae is part of the Hyperolius viridiflavus superspecies (Harper et al., 2010). Pickersgill (2007) considers coastal and island populations to be Hyperolius viridiflavus renschi, and only the populations further inland to be H.v. mariae.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Distribution

This species occurs in two separate areas: on the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts from Witu south to the Dar es Salaam area (and including Pemba, Zanzibar and Mafia islands), and inland as far as Mikumi National Park; and around Lake Mweru in northeastern Zambia and southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (Schiøtz et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Morphology

Head is slightly longer than broad. Snout is rounded, slightly projecting, longer than the orbital diameter (reckoning snout from anterior border of eye). Canthus rostralis is distinct but rounded; loreal region is vertical, very slightly concave. Interorbital space is twice as broad as upper eyelid (one and a half times in some female paratypes). Transverse orbital diameter equals the distance from the anterior border of the eye to the nostril, also the distance between the nasal openings (or longer than the internasal distance in some female paratypes). Tympanum is hidden. Fingers and toes are moderate, dilated at their tips. Fingers are about two-thirds webbed, the web extending to the base of the disk of the outer finger, to the last joint but one on both sides of the third finger, between the last joint but one and the distal joint of the second, to the last joint but one of the first. Toes are fully webbed, that is to say, to the bases, or almost to the base of the disks. The tibio-tarsal joint of the adpressed hind limb reaches the end of the snout in the type (usually the eye, or between eye and nostril in all female paratypes). Skin is smooth above and below except on the breast, belly, and thighs, where it is granular. One or two hardly distinguishable granules are present at the commissure of the mouth. In the paratypes, the interorbital space is from one and a half to twice as broad as the upper eyelid. Fingers are only half webbed. Tibio-tarsal articulation of the adpressed hind hmb reaches to the eye, or slightly beyond. The skin of the gular disk is markedly granular (Barbour and Loveridge, 1928).

Colour of the holotype in life: Dorsum is uniform greyish-white on head, back, tibia, and outside edge of foot. A black speck is present on the snout. Nostrils are ringed with black. Edge of upper eyelid is black, and an indefinite broad cream-coloured stripe is presen on the side with a broad black one below it. Thighs are flesh-pink or blood-red. Lower lips are tipped with blood-red, throat is white and rest of the under surface blood-red (Barbour and Loveridge, 1928).

In alcohol, the seven female paratypes exhibit a gradation from light to dark on the backs; two specimens (23 and 26 mm. long), which are very pale above and show no pink, have a light canthal band of the argus type, passing through the eye to some distance along the flank. There is a very slight concentration of black pigment above and below this colourless line. The remaining six (25 to 28 mm. in length and which are breeding females) do not show any light canthal band, but its place is taken by a dark spot around the nostril and another spot behind the eye, which exhibit a tendency to develop with age until they almost meet to form a very black canthal streak. There is also an isolated broad black lateral band of a different character, being subdermal rather than superficial like the nasal spots. The colourless thighs and feet still appear very pinkish in alcohol a year after being collected. The smallest male (20 mm.) is also pallid and without any pink on limbs, and shows a light canthal band combined with heavy pigmentation around the nostrils, with the pigmentation extending along the flank. The four remaining males (23 to 26 mm.) are like the adult females in having a dark ring round the nostrils which may unite with the black postocular spot to form a rich black canthal band. No. 13265 alone has a corresponding black, or sepia, spot on each elbow and knee, and a pair of them above the anal opening. The throat of the juvenile male is immaculate white; those of the others heavily speckled with black on the gular disk and usually, but not invariably, on the lips as well (Barbour and Loveridge, 1928).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Size

The holotype measured 28 mm, female paratypes were 23-28 mm and male paratypes were 20-26 mm in length (Barbour and Loveridge, 1928). According to Harper et al. (2010), males and females are up to 25 mm in snout-vent length.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Diagnostic Description

This is a small Hyperolius with a short snout. The dorsum is pale tan with a dark blueish-black band low on each side. Black canthal stripes are usually present, sometimes extending over the eye to the base of the arm. The tympanum is not visible. The hands, feet and ventral surface are reddish. The toes are nearly fully webbed (Harper et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Comparisons

The dorsal markings are distinct (Harper et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Habitat and Ecology

It is associated in with emergent vegetation at the margins of swamps, rivers and lakes in all types of savannah, grassland and bush land, as well as many human-modified habitats, including cultivated land, towns and gardens. It spreads rapidly into recently created waterbodies (Schiøtz et al., 2004). It is found at elevations up to 1400 m (Harper et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Population Biology

It is an extremely abundant species (Schiøtz et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Advertisement Call

Schiøtz (1999) describes the call as “a fast series of high-pitched clicks.”


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Reproduction

It breeds in a wide variety of aquatic habitats, ranging from very small to very large ponds, usually using temporary, but often also in permanent, waterbodies. The eggs are deposited directly into the water (Schiøtz et al., 2004). Males call from exposed sites on vegetation near water. Clutches of around 330 small black and white eggs are deposited in open water. Tadpoles hatch after about six days (Harper et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status

The IUCN Red List (2010) categorizes this species as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category (Schiøtz et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Trends

Populations are believed to be stable (Schiøtz et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Threats

It is a very adaptable species that is not facing any significant threats (Schiøtz et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Conservation Actions and Management

It probably occurs in several protected areas, including Mikumi National Park in Tanzania (Schiøtz et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/