AMPHIBIAWEB
 

  Eleutherodactylidae

218 species in 4 genera

This family is an assemblage of four genera of direct-developing frogs found throughout the West Indies, in peninsular Florida (where it may be either native or introduced) and from southern Texas (USA) south to northwestern Ecuador, with some genera in northeastern South America and in the Amazon Basin. Frogs of the family Eleutherodactylidae range in size from 10.5 mm SVL in female Eleutherodactylus iberia to 88 mm in female Eleutherodactylus inoptatus (Hedges et al. 2008). Eleutherodactylus iberia is one of the smallest frogs in the world. Miniaturization has occurred across five families of frogs (Brachycephalidae, Eleutherodactylidae, Leptodactylidae, Microhylidae, and Sooglossidae), and with it come constraints in morphological development, including digital reduction and loss of vomerine teeth. Miniaturized frog species also tend to have high-frequency calls (>5 kHz) and to have clutches with very small numbers of eggs (sometimes only one egg). Another unusual species is Eleutherodactylus jasperi, an ovoviviparous frog which retains developing embryos within eggs in the oviduct, giving birth to live froglets. This species is endemic to southern Puerto Rico, but is thought to be extinct as it has not been seen since 1981.


An adult Eleutherodactylus iberia, one of the smallest known frogs at just 10.5 mm
Photo by Ansel Fong
(Click for details)

Species in the family Eleutherodactylidae share the following characters: (1) cartilaginous sternum; (2) vertebral shield not present; (3) transverse processes of posterior presacral vertebrae not expanded broadly; (4) cervical cotyles widely spaced; (5) eight presacral vertebrae, with Presacrals I and II not fused; (6) cranial elements not co-ossified with overlying skin; (7) omosternum present; (8) sacral diapophyses rounded to barely dilated; (9) maxillary arch usually dentate, with blunt, pedicellate teeth; (10) alary processes of premaxillae broadened at base, usually directed dorsally or posterodorsally; (11) palatal shelf of premaxilla usually broad, may be indented or not; (12) pars facialis of maxilla usually deep, not exostosed; (13) palatal shelf of maxilla moderately broad, may bear pterygoid process or not; (14) maxillary arch complete; maxillae tapering posteriorly; quadratojugal slender; (15) nasals usually large with broad median contact; (16) nasals usually not in contact with maxillae or pterygoids; (17) nasals not in contact with frontoparietals; (18) frontoparietal fontanelle usually absent; (19) frontoparietals usually not exostosed; cranial crests present in some Eleutherodactylus; (20) frontoparietals fused with prootics or not; (21) temporal arcade absent; (22) epiotic eminences prominent to indistinct; (23) carotid artery passes dorsal to cranial elements; (24) zygomatic ramus of squamosal broad to slender, usually not in contact with maxilla; (25) otic ramus of squamosal short to elongate, may be expanded into otic plate or not; (26) squamosal-maxilla angle 4467; (27) columella present, except in fenestra ovalis directed laterally; (28) vomers varying in size; dentigerous processes absent in Eleutherodactylus (subgenus Syrrhophus), and some diminutive species of Eleutherodactylus (subgenus Euhyas); (29) neopalatines usually broad; slender in Eleutherodactylus (subgenus Syrrhophus); (30) sphenethmoid usually entire, divided in some Eleutherodactylus (subgenus Syrrhophus); (31) anterior ramus of parasphenoid narrow to broad, no keel; (32) parasphenoid alae either present at right angle to axis of skull or deflected posteriorly, usually not overlapped by pterygoids; (33) pterygoid lacks ventral flange; anterior ramus does not reach neopalatine; (34) occipital condyles small to large, widely separated medially, may be stalked or not; (35) odontoids lacking; (36) terminal phalanges T-shaped; (37) usually three phalanges in Finger IV (two in some Adelophryne); (38) Toe I fully developed and free; (39) alary process of hyoid plate may be on slender stalk or not; (40) mandibular ramus of trigeminal nerve passes lateral to the m. adductor mandibulae (condition unknown in Adelophryne); (41) prominent external body glands usually absent, though lumbar glands are present in some Eleutherodactylus; (42) males have single or paired subgular vocal sac, single pectoral vocal sac, or no vocal sac; (43) males hav vocal slits (or not) and lack nuptial pads; (44) hands unwebbed; feet usually unwebbed or webbed basally, but foot webbing is extensive in some Eleutherodactylus; (45) terminal digits usually expanded with pads set off by distinct circumferential grooves; digits apically pointed in Adelophryne and some Diasporus; grooves present only laterally in Phyzelaphryne; (46) inner and outer metatarsal tubercles present, inner tubercle not spade-like; (47) tympanic membrane and annulus well differentiated or not; (48) amplexus axillary; (49) eggs are deposited terrestrially or arboreally and undergo direct development; ovoviviparity exists in at least one species, Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) jasperi.

Literature cited:
Hedges, S. B., Duellman, W. E., and Heinicke, M. P. (2008). New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation. Zootaxa 1737: 1-182.

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Subfamily Eleutherodactylinae (208 species)

Genus Diasporus (15 species)    [subfamily Eleutherodactylinae]
Diasporus anthrax no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Diasporus citrinobapheus AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Diasporus darienensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Diasporus diastema no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Diasporus gularis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Diasporus hylaeformis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Diasporus igneus no AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Diasporus majeensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Diasporus pequeno no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Diasporus quidditus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Diasporus sapo no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Diasporus tigrillo no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Diasporus tinker no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Diasporus ventrimaculatus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Diasporus vocator no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Eleutherodactylus (193 species)    [subfamily Eleutherodactylinae]
Eleutherodactylus abbotti AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus acmonis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus adelus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus albipes AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus albolabris no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus alcoae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus alticola no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus amadeus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus amplinympha no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus andicola no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus andrewsi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus angustidigitorum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus antillensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus aporostegus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus apostates no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus armstrongi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus atkinsi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus audanti no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus auriculatoides no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus auriculatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus bakeri no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus barlagnei no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus bartonsmithi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus beguei no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus blairhedgesi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus bothroboans no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus bresslerae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus brevirostris no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus brittoni AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus caribe no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus casparii no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus cattus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus cavernicola no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus chlorophenax no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus cochranae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus cooki AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus coqui AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Eleutherodactylus corona no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus counouspeus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus cubanus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus cundalli no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus cuneatus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus cystignathoides AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Eleutherodactylus darlingtoni no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus dennisi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus dilatus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus dimidiatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus diplasius no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus dolomedes no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus eileenae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus emiliae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus eneidae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus erythroproctus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus etheridgei AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus eunaster no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus feichtingeri AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus flavescens no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus fowleri no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus furcyensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus fuscus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus glamyrus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus glandulifer no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus glanduliferoides no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus glaphycompus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus glaucoreius no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus goini no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus gossei no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus grabhami no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus grahami no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus grandis no AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Eleutherodactylus greyi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus griphus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus grunwaldi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus gryllus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus guanahacabibes no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus guantanamera AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus gundlachi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus guttilatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus haitianus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus hedricki AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus heminota no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus hypostenor no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus iberia AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus inoptatus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus intermedius AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus interorbitalis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus ionthus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus jamaicensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus jasperi AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus jaumei no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus johnstonei AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus juanariveroi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus jugans no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus junori no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus karlschmidti no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus klinikowskii no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus lamprotes no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus leberi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus lentus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus leoncei no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus leprus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus ligiae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus limbatus AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus limbensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus locustus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus longipes no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus lucioi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus luteolus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus maestrensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus mariposa AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus marnockii AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Eleutherodactylus martinicensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus maurus no AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Eleutherodactylus melacara AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus melatrigonum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus michaelschmidi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus minutus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus modestus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus monensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus montanus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus neiba no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus nitidus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus nivicolimae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus nortoni AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus notidodes no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus nubicola no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus olibrus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus orcutti no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus orientalis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus oxyrhyncus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus pallidus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus pantoni no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus parabates no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus paralius no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus parapelates no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus patriciae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus paulsoni no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus pentasyringos no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus pezopetrus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus pictissimus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus pinarensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus pinchoni AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus pipilans AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus pituinus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus planirostris AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Eleutherodactylus poolei no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus portoricensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus principalis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus probolaeus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus rhodesi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus richmondi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus ricordii AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus riparius no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus rivularis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus rogersi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus ronaldi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus rubrimaculatus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus rucillensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus rufescens no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus rufifemoralis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus ruthae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus saxatilis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus schmidti no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus schwartzi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus sciagraphus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus semipalmatus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus simulans AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus sisyphodemus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus sommeri no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus staurometopon no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus symingtoni AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus syristes no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus teretistes no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus tetajulia AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus thomasi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus thorectes no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus toa no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus tonyi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus turquinensis AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus tychathrous no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus unicolor AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus varians no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus varleyi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus ventrilineatus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus verrucipes no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus verruculatus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus warreni no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus weinlandi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus wetmorei no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus wightmanae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus wixarika no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus zeus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Eleutherodactylus zugi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Subfamily Phyzelaphryninae (10 species)

Genus Adelophryne (9 species)    [subfamily Phyzelaphryninae]
Adelophryne adiastola AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Adelophryne baturitensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Adelophryne glandulata no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Adelophryne gutturosa no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Adelophryne maranguapensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Adelophryne meridionalis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Adelophryne mucronatus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Adelophryne pachydactyla no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Adelophryne patamona no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Phyzelaphryne (1 species)    [subfamily Phyzelaphryninae]
Phyzelaphryne miriamae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video


Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. 2016. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: http://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed: 2016).

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