Cochranella adenocheira is a small-bodied, colorful glassfrog that can be diagnosed by the following combination of characters: (1) dentigerous process of vomer and teeth present; (2) green bones in life; (3) white parietal peritoneum and pericardium; white visceral peritonea of gonads, stomach, and large intestine; translucent bladder; (4) in life, green dorsum with yellow spots; in preservative, light gray dorsum with white markings; (5) webbing formula of hands II2—3.5III2—
(1.5–2.5)IV; (6) webbing formula of feet I1—1II1.25—2III1.25—2IV2—1.5V; (7)
snout round in dorsal view, truncate in profile; (8) dorsal skin smooth in non-breeding males; (9) smooth dermal folds along postaxial edge of antebrachium, hand, and foot; (10) humeral spine lacking; (11) lower 3/4 of tympanum and tympanic annulus distinct; (12) males having average snout-vent length of 22.0 mm; (13) prepollex not enlarged and lacking spine; (14) white
glands present below vent; para and subcloacal folds lacking; (15) Finger I considerably longer than finger II; (16) liver trilobate; (17) eye diameter roughly 2.33 width of Finger III disc (Harvey and Noonan 2005).
Description: Males measure between 22.6-23.1 mm SVL, and females 24.0-27.7 mm SVL. Head wider than body, with a short, rounded snout in dorsal view and a truncate snout when viewed in profile. Nares small and protuberant, and closer to the tip of the snout than to the eye. Eyes large and widely spaced. Tympanum and tympanic annulus distinct, with a low supratympanic fold covering the upper and posterior margins of the tympanum. Dentigerous vomerine processes are oval, positioned medial to the choanae, and each bearing four small teeth. Tongue is round and not free posteriorly. Arms short and upper arms are slender compared to forearms. Humeral spine absent. White glandular ridge extends from the elbow to the tip of the fourth finger, along the postaxial edge of the forearm. Hand is moderately long with finger length II+-2-IV. Legs long with moderately long feet. Foot webbing is thin and smooth, with the formula I1-1-II1.25-2+III1.25-2IV2-1.5V. Length of toes decreases from IV>V>III>II>I. Toes IV and V are fused just proximal to the phalangeal-metatarsal articularion. Subarticular tubercles are round and indistinct; supernumerary tubercles are absent. Heels are smooth. Inner metatarsal tubercle is small, flat, and oval, while the outer metatarsal tubercle is absent. Digital pad of first toe is distinctly pointed while pads on toes II-V are round, a unique characteristic for the genus Cochranella; all toe discs are edged by marginal grooves. Dorsal skin and throat are smooth, while the rest of the ventral skin is weakly areolate. Dermal glands are white and scattered over most of the body, fusing into white folds on the lips and fusing below the vent to form a fan. Skin below vent lacks paired enlarged tubercles, paracloacal, and subcloacal folds. Single vocal sac is present in males (Harvey and Noonan 2005).
Dorsum dark green with scattered, small bright yellow spots and scattered white dermal glands. Gular region and skin of ventral body translucent; both tongue and bones are green. White glandular folds on lips and extending along lower mandible and postaxial edges of limbs. White triangular patch below the vent. White pigmentation obscures heart, right hepatic lobe, and part of left hepatic lobe; posterior portion of the left hepatic lobe is visible through ventral skin. White pigmentation is present on the entire falciform ligament and the parietal pericardium. White pigmentation is also present on the visceral peritoneum, over most of the stomach and all of the large intestine and testes, with the remaining peritonea, bladder and mesenteries lacking white pigment. White glandular ridges extend along postaxial edges of limbs and to upper lip. Iris is yellow-green (Harvey and Noonan 2005).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Bolivia, Brazil
Endemic to Bolivia and Brazil. The type locality is located at the north-east base of the Serranía de Huanchaca, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado, in Velasco Province, Santa Cruz State, Bolivia, at 300 m asl (Harvey 2006). This species is also found in Brazil, in the municipality of Juara, state of Mato Grosso and the municipality of Jacarecanga, state of Pará (Toledo et al. 2009), and has additionally been reported from the municipality of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso (Caldwell 2009). It is found in pristine, closed-canopy rainforest, in the vicinity of stream beds or ponds (Harvey 2006; Toledo et al. 2009).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Dwells on vegetation mostly along sandy stream beds in closed-canopy rainforests; stream beds are seasonally reduced to small, very shallow pools. Presumed to breed in streams (Harvey 2006). In Brazil, individuals were found perched on pond vegetation (Toledo et al. 2009). It may have fossorial larvae (Harvey 2006).
Trends and Threats
Requires closed-canopy rainforest habitat. Rare at the type locality. The population trend is unknown. The type locality in Bolivia lies within a protected area, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado (Harvey 2006).
Species authority: Harvey and Noonan (2005).
The specific epithet adenocheira is derived
from the Greek words adenos, meaning "gland," and cheir, meaning "hand." The name is taken from the distinctive white
dermal glands along the
fingers and toes of this species (Harvey and Noonan 2005).
Placed in the ocellata group due to its truncate snout and smooth dermal folds (Harvey and Noonan 2006).
Caldwell, J. A. 2009. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Lower Cristalino River Region of the Southern Amazon. Electronic database accessible at: www.omnh.ou.edu/personnel/herpetology/vitt/Cerrado/Cristalino/. Captured on May 2009.
Harvey, M. 2006. Cochranella adenocheira. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 28 October 2009.
Harvey, M. B. and Noonan, B. P. (2005). ''Bolivian glass frogs (Anura: Centrolenidae) with a description of a new species from Amazonia.'' Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 118(2), 428-441.
Toledo, L. F., Araújo, O. G. S., Ávila, R. W., Kawashita-Ribeiro, R. A., Morais, D. H., and Cisneros-Heredia, D. F. (2009). ''Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Cochranella adenocheira: distribution and range extension, Brazil.'' Check List, 5(3), 380-382.
Written by Caroline Lewis (Carolewis711 AT berkeley.edu), UC Berkeley
First submitted 2009-10-14
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2011-07-18)
Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on
amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. 2013. Berkeley, California:
(Accessed: Jun 19, 2013).
AmphibiaWeb's policy on data use.