This is a species complex that occurs throughout the Amazon Basin of South America, the Guianas, and is also present in central Panama and the eastern lowlands and cordilleras of Panama, as well as in Gorgona Island, Colombia. Specimens recorded from the west coast of Ecuador are believed to refer to another species and are not mapped here. It is present from sea level to 2,400m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
Terrestrial and nocturnal toad found in primary and secondary lowland, premontane and montane tropical moist forest (including terra firme and seasonally flooded forest). Also present in open areas. In Gorgona Island its distribution appears to be influenced by the understory cover (Urbina-C. and LondoĂ±o-M. , 2003). This species is an explosive breeder in temporary pools and streams. Males call along banks of watercourses. It is a very generalist species that can be found in disturbed areas.
It is common throughout most countries but is uncommon in Colombia.
It is a widespread species with large areas of suitable habitat remaining. There is some localized habitat loss to general human activities such as agriculture (crops, livestock etc.). It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat.
It occurs in protected areas throughout its range.
This taxon is a complex of more than one species. Populations in Panama refer to an unnamed species in the Rhinella margaritifera complex.
Frank SolĂs, Roberto IbĂˇĂ±ez, CĂ©sar Jaramillo, Querube Fuenmayor, DĂ©bora Silvano, Luis A. Coloma, Enrique La Marca, Santiago Ron, Marinus Hoogmoed 2010. Rhinella margaritifera. In: IUCN 2014