bookcover Excerpts from Crocodile Newts: The Primitive Salamandridae of Asia (Genera Echinotriton and Tylototriton) by Axel Hernandez 2016 Edition Chimaira (more on the author and book).   


ANDERS C., SCHLEICH H. & SHAH K. 1998. Contributions to the Biology of Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson 1871 from east Nepal (Amphibia: Caudata, Salamandridae). In: SCHLEICH, H. & W. KÄSTLE (eds.) Contributions to the Herpetology of South Asia (Nepal, India) No. 4. Fuhlrott Museum, Wuppertal, Germany, 1–26.

ANDERSON J. 1871. Description of a new genus of newts from western Yunnan. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 423–425.

ANDERSON M. J. 2005. PERMANOVA: a FORTRAN computer program for permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Department of Statistics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

ANDERSON R. P. & GONZALEZ I. 2011. Species-specific tuning increases robustness to sampling bias in models of species distributions: An implementation with MaxEnt. Ecological Modelling, 222: 2796–2811.

ANNANDALE N. 1907. Eggs of Tylototriton verrucosus. Rec. Indian Mus., 1: 278-279.

ANNANDALE N. 1908. Breeding habits of Tylototriton verrucosus. Rec. Indian Mus., 2: 305 – 306.

ANNANDALE N. 1911. Contributions to the fauna of Yunnan: Collections made by F. Croggin Brown B. Sc. 1869 – 1910. Part VI: Batrachia and Reptilia, Rec. Indian Mus., 6, 215 – 218.

ARNOLD S. J. 1977. The evolution of courtship behavior in New World salamanders with some comments on Old World Salamanders. In: TAYLOR, D. H. & S. I. GUTTMAN, Eds., The reproductive biology of amphibians, Plenum Press, New York, 141-183.

AMPHIBIAWEB. Information on amphibian biology and conservation (web application) 2015. Berkeley. California. http://

AVERYANOV L. V., PHAN K. L., NGUYEN T. H. & HARDER D. K. 2003. Phytogeographic review of Vietnam and adjacent areas of eastern Indochina. Komarovia 3:1–83.

BAI J-M., XIAO L-Y. & HU S-Y. 2007. Studies on Effects of pH-value on Protease Activities in Digestive System of Tylototriton kweichowensis. Acta Agriculturae Jiangxi, 3:80-81 (in Chinese).

BAI J. & HU S. 2010. Studies on Nutrient Components of Artificial Rearing Tylototriton kweichowensis. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 24: 13145-13146,13186 (in Chinese).

BAO F., WANG S., CUI F. & KANG J. 2012. Analysis on the Karyotypes of Tylototrion asperrimus in Yaoluoping Nature Reserve Yuexi, Anhui. Journal of Anhui Science and Technology University, 1: 32-35 (in Chinese).

BATISTA V., JAMES HARRIS D., CARRETERO M. A. 2003. Genetic variation in Pleurodeles waltl Michaelles across the Strait of Gibraltar derived from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Herpetozoa 16(3/4): 2-4.

BAO F., GAO G., WANG S., CUI F. & KANG J. 2012. Habitat selection and feeding habits of Tylototriton wenxianensis in Yaoluoping Nature Reserve Yuexi, Anhui. Journal of Central China Normal University (Natural Sciences), 2: 208-213 (in Chinese).

BEAVER O. 1982. Occurrence of a salamander on Doi Suthep. Journal of the Science Society of Thailand, 36: 398-400 (in Thai).

BECKER C. G., FONSECA C. R., HADDAD C. F. B., BATISTA R. F. & PRADO P. I. 2007 Habitat split and the global decline of amphibians. Science, 318: 1775–1777.

BEN HASSINE J., KASSABI A. & NOUIRA S. 2013. Pleurodeles nebulosus (Guichenot, 1850) en Tunisie: répartition, habitat, reproduction et statut. Bulletin de la Société Herpetologique de France. 144: 51-66.

BERNARDES M., RÖDDERB D., NGUYEN T.T., PHAM C.T., NGUYEN T.Q. & ZIEGLER T. 2013. Habitat characterization and potential distribution of Tylototriton vietnamensis in northern Vietnam. Journal of Natural History, 47: 1161–1175.

BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL. 2016. Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Huanglianshan. Downloaded from on 04/04/2016.

BÖHME W., SCHÖTTLER T., NGUYEN Q. T. & KÖHLER J. 2005. A new species of salamander genus Tylototriton, from northern Vietnam. Salamandra, Rheinbach, 41(4): 215-220.

BOULENGER G. A. 1892. Descriptions of new reptiles and batrachians from the Loo Choo Islands. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, sér. 6, vol. 10, 302-304.

BOULENGER G. A. 1920. Observation sur un batracien urodèle d’Asie, Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson. Bulletin de la Société Herpétologique de France. Paris, 45 : 98-99.

BOURRET R. 1937. Notes herpétologiques sur l'Indochinese française. XIV. Les batraciens de la collection du Laboratoire des Sciences naturelles de l'Université. Descriptions de quinze espèces ou variétés nouvelles. Annexe au Bulletin Général de l'Instruction Publique 4:5–56.

BOURRET R. 1942. Les Batraciens de l'Indochine. Institut Océanographique de l'Indochine, Gouvernment Général de L'Indochine, Hanoi. 547 pp.

BLOOI M., PASMANS F., ROUFFAER L., HAESEBROUCK F., VERCAMMEN F. & MARTEL A. 2015. Treatment of urodelans based on temperature dependent infection dynamics of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. Sci. Rep. 5, 8037; DOI:10.1038/srep08037.

BRAME A. H. JR. 1972. A Checklist of the Living and Fossil Salamanders (Order Caudata) of the World (Unpublished Manuscript). Pasadena, California

BRODIE E. D., NUSSBAUM JR. R. A. & DIGIOVANNI M. 1984. Antipredator adaptations of Asian salamanders (Salamandridae). Herpetologica, 40, 56-68.

CAI C. 1985. A survey of Salamanders of Zhejiang, with description of a new species of Hynobius. Acta Herp. Sinica, Chengdu, 4(2): 109-114.

CAI C. & FEI L. 1984. Description of neotype of Echinotriton chinhaiensis (Chang) and its ecology and habit. Acta Herp. Sinica, 3(1): 71-78.

CAMPBELL D. G. & HAMMOND H. D. editors. 1989. Floristic inventory of tropical countries. The New York Botanical Garden, New York.

CAO M. & ZHANG J. 1997. Tree species diversity of tropical forest vegetation in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Biodiversity & Conservation, 6: 995–1006.

CAO K. F., PETERS R. & OLDEMAN R. A. 1995. Climatic range and distribution of Chinese Fagus species. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6: 317–324.

CAO M., YANG Y. & ZHANG Y. 2002. Cloning and sequence analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene of Tylototriton taliangensis. Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology, 3: 314-316 (in Chinese).

CARRANZA S. & ARNOLD E. N. 2004. History of west Mediterranean newts Pleurodeles, inferred from old and recent DNA sequences. Systematics and Biodiversity, 1 (3): 327-337.

CARRANZA S. & WADE E. 2004. Taxonomic revision of Algero-Tunisian Pleurodeles using molecular and morphological data. Revalidation of the taxon Pleurodeles nebulosus (Guichenot, 1850). Zootaxa 488 : 1-24.

CHAIYES A., DUENGKAE P., CHUAYNKERN A. & PONGPATTANANURAK N. 2013. Projected impact of climate change on the potential distribution of amphibians in Thailand: a case study of the Crocodile newt (Tylototriton verrucosus). Technical Paper of Forest Biology, 52-56.

CHANG M. L. Y. 1933. On the salamanders of Chekiang. Contributions from the biological laboratory of the Science Society of China, Nanjing 9: 305-328.

CHANG M. L. Y. 1935. Note préliminaire sur la classification des salamandres d’Asie Orientale. Bulletin de la Société zoologique de France 60: 424-427.

CHANG M. L. Y. 1936. Contribution à l’étude morphologique, biologique et systématique des Amphibiens Urodèles de la Chine. Picart, Paris, 145 pp.

CHATTERJEE A. K. & MUKHERJEE K. L. 1982. Hibernation of Himalayan salamander (Tylototriton verrucosus). J. Bengal Nat. Hist. Soc., N. S., 1(1): 100.

CHAUDHURI S. K. 1966. Studies on Tylototriton verrucosus (Himalayan newt) found in Darjeeling. J. Bengal Nat. Hist. Soc., 35(1): 32 – 36.

CHEFAOUI R. M. & LOBO J. M. 2008. Assessing the effects of pseudo-absences on predictive distribution model performance. Ecological Modelling, 210: 478–486.

CHEN H., LI S., XIONG R-C. & TIAN Y-Z. 2013. An Iinvestigation of Vertebrate Resources in Minghu National Wetland Park of Liupanshui, Guizhou Province Journal of Liupanshui Teachers College, 6: 1-20 (in Chinese).

CHEN X. H., WANG X. W. & TAO J. 2010. A new subspecies of genus Tylototriton from China (Caudata, Salamandridae). Acta Zootaxon Sinica, 35: 666–670 (In Chinese).

CHENG D. & WANG Y. 2013. The Observation of Tylototriton Kweichowensis Overwinter Ecological. Serves of Agricultural Technology, 10: 1104-1107 (in Chinese).

CHUAYNKERN Y. & CHUAYNKERN C. 2012. A Checklist of amphibians in Thailand. Journal of Wildlife in Thailand, 19(1): 163-211.

CLACK J. A. & MILNER A. R. 2015. Early tetrapods. Handbook of Paleoherpetology. Part 3A1. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich.

CLACK J. A. 2012. Gaining Ground: the origin and evolution of tetrapods, Second Edition. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, USA. 544pp.

CONCARO J. C. 2004. Zucht einer albinoform von Salamandra s. terrestris (Lacépède) über 25 jahre. Elaphe 12(3): 28-34.

DAI Z-X., ZHANG H-M., ZHOU Q. & LIU X-S. 2011. Amphibian Resources in Hubei Province. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 1:144-147.

DARRIBA D., TABOADA G. L., DOALLO R. & POSADA D. 2012. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods 9, 772.

DAS I. 1987. Natural history of the Indian salamander. Herpetofauna News, 9, 3.

DASGUPTA R. 1983. Observations on the Himalayan newt. J. Bengal Nat. Hist. Soc., N. S., 2(2): 59-60.

DASGUPTA R. 1984. Parental care in the Himalayan newt. J. Bengal Nat. Hist. Soc., N. S., 3(2): 106-109.

DASGUPTA R. 1987. The construction of pools in parks and their relation to the conservation of small vertebrates. J. Bengal Nat. Hist. Soc., N. S., 6(2): 110-112.

DASGUPTA R. 1988. The young of the Himalayan newt. J. Bengal Nat. Hist. Soc., N. S., 7(1): 3-18.

DASGUPTA R., LAMA P., BHATTACHARJEE A., BERA S., DE K. K., MUKHARJEE T. & DASGUPTA B. 1989. Lentic habitats in the Darjeeling Himalayas and problems related to their conservation. J. Bengal Nat. Hist. Soc., N. S., 8(2): 66 – 69. DASGUPTA R. 1990. Distribution and conservation problems of the Himalayan newt (Tylototriton verrucosus) in the Darjeeling Himalayas. Hamadryad, 15: 13–15.

DASGUPTA R. & DASGUPTA B. 1990. On the conservation of the Himalayan salamander Tylototriton verrucosus in: G. K. Manna and B. B. Jana (eds.), Impacts of Environment on Animals and Aquaculture, Calcutta, pp. 283 – 285.

DASGUPTA R., LAMA P. & DASGUPTA B. 1990. Rediscovery of a natural habitat of the newt in Darjeeling Himalayas. J. Bengal Nat. Hist. Soc., N. S., 9(2): 7-8.

DASGUPTA R. 1996. Feeding ecology of the adult Himalayan Salamander Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson, 1871. Herpetozoa, 9: 19–29.

DASGUPTA R. 1997. Effects of predation and trophic conditions on the reproduction of Tylototriton verrucosus (Caudata: Salamandridae) in Darjeeling. Russian Journal Herpetology, 4(2): 163–169.

DEUTI K. & HEGDE V.D. 2007. Handbook on Himalayan Salamander. Nature Books India, New Delhi, India, 23 pp.

DENG Q. & YU Z. 1984. A new subspecies of salamander from Sichuan. Tylototriton asperrimus pingwuensis. Acta Herp. Sinica, 3(2): 75-77.

DENNIS R. L., DAPPORTO L., FATTORINI S. & COOK L. M. 2011. The generalism specialism debate: the role of generalists in the life and death of species. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 104: 725–737.

DEVI N. T. 2005. The food of the Himalayan Newt (Tylototriton verrucosus ANDERSON): A preliminary study. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 102 (2): 166–168.

DIJK P. P., WOGAN G., LAU M. W. N., DUTTA S., SHRESTHA T. K., ROY D., TRUONG N. Q. 2009. Tylototriton verrucosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Retrieved from Accessed 21 December 2014.

DING Y., REN G., ZHAO Z., XU Y., LUO Y., LI Q. & ZHANG J. 2007. Detection, causes and projection of climate change over China: an overview of recent progress. –Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 24: 954–971.

DOLÉDEC S., CHESSEL D. & GIMARET–CARPENTIER C. 2000. Niche separation in community analysis: a new method. Ecology, 81: 2914–2927.

DUAN D-W., XIAO X-L., PENG D-Y & LI H-M. 2013. Biological Phenomenon of Tylototriton verrucosus under the Condition of Artificial Breeding. Animal Husbandry and Feed Science, 7: 8-11 (in Chinese).

DUBOIS A. 1984. Miscellanea Nomenclatorica Batrachologica (IV). Alytes 3: 103-110.

DUBOIS A. 1987. Miscellanea taxinomica batrachologica (I). Alytes, Paris 5: 7-95.

DUBOIS A. 2003. The relationships between taxonomy and conservation biology in the century of extinctions. Comptes rendus Biologies, 326 (Suppl.1): S9-S21.

DUBOIS A. 2004. The higher nomenclature of recent Amphibiens. Alytes, 22(1-2): 1-14.

DUBOIS A. 2005a. Amphibia Mundi 1.1. An ergotaxonomy of recent amphibians. Alytes, 23(1-2) : 1-24.

DUBOIS A. 2005b. Proposed rules for the incorporation of nomina of higher-ranked zoological taxa in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 1. Some general questions, concepts and terms of biological nomenclature. Zoosystema, 27(2): 365-426.

DUBOIS A. 2008. Phylogenetic hypotheses, taxa and nomina in zoology. Zootaxa 1950: 51-86.

DUBOIS A. & RAFFAËLLI J. 2009. A new ergotaxonomy of the family Salamandridae Goldfuss, 1820 (Amphibia, Urodela). Alytes, 26(1–4): 1–85.

DUBOIS A. & OHLER A. M. 2010. Evolution et extinctions: le message des grenouilles. Ed. Le Pommier. 212 pp.

DUBOIS A. & RAFFAËLLI J. 2011. Subgeneric taxonomy and nomenclature of the genus Hypselotriton Wolterstorff, 1934. Alytes, 27(4): 117-141.

DUBOIS A. & RAFFAËLLI J. 2012. A new ergotaxonomy of the order Urodela Duméril, 1805 (Amphibia, Batrachia). Alytes 28 (3-4): 77-161.

DUELLMAN W. E. & TRUEB L. 1986. Biology of amphibians. McGraw-Hill, New York. 670 pp.

DUGUET R. & MELKI F. 2003. Les Amphibiens de France, Belgique et Luxembourg. Coll. ACEMAV, collection Parthénope, éditions Biotope, 480 pp.

DRUMMOND A. J. & RAMBAUT A. 2007. BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees. BMC Evol. Biol. 7: 214.

ECKERT C., SAMIS K. & LOUGHEED S. 2008. Genetic variation across species’ geographical ranges: the central–marginal hypothesis and beyond. Mol Ecol, 17(5): 1170–1188.

EDGAR R. C. 2004. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Res, 32, pp. 1792-1797.

ESCORIZA D. & COMAS M. DEL MAR. 2007. Description of a new subspecies of Salamandra algira Bedriaga, 1833 from the Beni Snassen massif (northeast Moroco). Salamandra, 43(2): 77-90.

ESCORIZA D., COMAS M. M., DONAIRE D. & CARRANZA S. 2006. Rediscovery of Salamandra algira Bedriaga, 1833 from the Beni Snassen massif (Marocco) and phylogenetic relationships of north African Salamandra. Amphibia-Reptilia, 27(3): 448-455.

EVANS, S. E., C. LALLY, D. J. CHURE, A. ELDER & J. A. MAISANO. 2005. A Late Jurassic salamander (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Morrison Formation of North America. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 143(4): 599-616.

FAN T-H. 1931. Preliminary report of reptiles from Yashan, Kwangsi, China. Biological Bulletin Department of Biology College of Science Sun Yatsen University Canton, 11(4): 1-154.

FANG P.W. & CHANG M. L. Y. 1932. Notes on Tylototriton kweichowensis sp. nov. and asperrimus Unterstein with synopsis to species. Sinensia, Nanking, 2: 111-122.

FANG J., WANG Z. & TANG A. 2011. Atlas of Woody Plants in China: Distribution and Climate. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, 2000 pp.

FEDER M. E. 1982 Thermal ecology of neotropical lungless salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae): environmental temperatures and behavioral responses. Ecology, 63: 1665–1674.

FEI L. 1996. Atlas of amphibians of China. Chengdu Institute of Biology. 432 pp.

FEI L. 1999. Atlas of amphibians of China. Hunan Science and Technology Publishing House, Zhengzhao, China, 432 pp.

FEI L., YE C. & YANG Y. 1984. A new species and a new subspecies of Tylototriton. Acta zoologica sinica 30: 85-91.

FEI L., YE C. Y. & JIANG J. P. 2012. Colored Atlas of Chinese amphibians and Their Distributions. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu. 78–94 (In Chinese).

FEI L., YE C. Y., HUAN Y. Z., JIANG J. P. & XIE F. 2005. An illustrated key to Chinese amphibians. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu. 340 pp. (In Chinese).

FERRIER V. & BEETSCHEN J-C. 1973. Etude des chromosomes de Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson et de l'hybride viable Pleurodeles waltlii (female) x Tylototriton verrucosus (male) (amphibiens urodeles, Salamandridae). Chromosoma, 421: 57-69.

FERRIER V. 1974. Chronologie du developement de l’amphibien urodele Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson (Salamandridae). Annales d’Embryologie et de Morphogenese, 7(4): 407-416.

FLECK J. 1997. Nachzucht von Tylototriton taliangensis. Elaphe 5(2): 86.

FLECK J. 2003. Beobachtungen an Tylototriton asperrimus Unterstein. Amphibia, 2: 3-6.

FLECK J. 2006. Bemerkungen zu Echinotriton andersoni von den Japanischen Inseln Tokunoshima und Okinawa sowie zur Nachzucht von Tieren der Tokunoshima-Form. Communication in Gersfeld 15 Oct 2005 at AG Urodela. Amphibia. Jahrgang 5, Heft 2, Rheinbach.

FLECK J. 2008. Hybriden aus der Gattung der Krokodilmolche: Tylototriton taliangensis x Tylototriton shanjing. Amphibia, 7(2): 17-18.

FLECK J. 2010a. Die Krokodilmolche der Gattung Tylototriton Anderson, 1871 (Teil 1). Elaphe, 18(1): 38-45.

FLECK J. 2010b. Die Krokodilmolche der Gattung Tylototriton Anderson, 1871 (Teil 2). Elaphe, 18(2): 38-45.

FLORA OF CHINA. 2015. Harvard University Herbaria, US Accessed on 25 September 2015.

FRANK N. & RAMUS E. 1995. Complete Guide to Scientific and Common Names of amphibians and Reptiles of the World. Pottsville, Pennsylvania: N. G. Publishing Inc.

FROST D. R., GRANT T., FAIVOVICH J., BAIN R. H., HAAS A., HADDAD C. FB., O DE SA R., CHANNING A., WILKINSON M., DONNELLAN S. C., RAXWORTHY C. J., CAMPBELL J. A., BLOTTO L. B., MOLER P., DREWES R. C., NUSSBAUM R. A., LYNCH J. D., GREEN D. M. & WHEELER W. C. 2006. The Amphibian Tree of Life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. N° 297, 370 pp.

FROST D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Lawrence, KS: Association of Systematic Collections and Allen Press, 732 pp.

FROST D. R. & HILLIS D. M. 1990. Species in concept and practice: Herpetological applications, Herpetologica, 46: 87-104.

FROST D. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at: herpetology/amphibia/index.html.(Assesses on April 23, 2016).

FUNK V. A., SAKAI A. K. & RICHARDSON K. 2002. Biodiversity: the interface between systematics and conservation. Syst. Biol. 51(2): 235-237.

GASCON C., COLLINS J. P., MOORE R. D., CHURCH D. R., MCKAY J. E. & MENDELSON J. R. 2007 . Amphibian conservation action plan. Gland: IUCN/SSC Amphibian Specialist Group.

GAO K.-Q. & SHUBIN N. H. 2001. Late Jurassic salamanders from northern China. Nature. London 410: 574-577.

GAO K.-Q. & SHUBIN N. H. 2003. Earliest known crown group salamanders. Nature. London 422: 424-429.

GARCIA-PARIS M., MONTORI A. & HERRERO P. 2004b. Amphibia : Lissamphibia. Fauna Iberica Vol. 24.

GERLACH U. 2012. Im Habitat das Birma-Krokodilmolches Tylototriton verrucosus in Thailand, Amphibia 11: 13-15.

GONG D. J. & MU M. 2008. Behavioural observations and descriptions of the endangered knobby newt Tylototriton wenxianensis and their application in conservation. Asiatic Herpetological Research, 1: 31–38.

GUINDON S. & GASCUE O. 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol 52: 696-704

GRIFFITHS R. A. 1996. Newts and salamanders of Europe. T et AD Poyser Ltd, London. 188 pp.

GROSSE W. R. 2007. Der Gelbe Krokodilmolch, Tylototriton shanjing: Systematik, Haltung und Vermehrung. Terraria, 2(5): 48–51.

GU X. & GAO X. 1996. A study on the karyotype of Tylototriton asperrimus. Guizhou Science journal. 14:34-36.

GU X. & Shang Y. 1994. Study on ecology of Guizhou Wart Newt in summer. Journal of Guizhou Normal University. 12 :1-5 (in Chinese).

GU X-M., CHEN R-R., WANG H., TIAN Y-Z., CHEN G-Z., & TIAN D. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships of subgenus Yaotriton (Caudata, Salamandridae, Tylototriton) based on partial mitochondrial DNA gene sequences. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica/ Dong wu fen lei xue bao. Beijing 37: 20–28.

GUPTA B. K., TAPLEY B., VASUDEVAN K. & GOETZ M. 2015. Ex situ Management of amphibians. Assam State Zoo cum Botanical Garden, Guwaha, 72 pp.

GORIS R. C. & MAEDA N. 2004. Guide to the amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, India, 285 pp.

GIBSON L., BARRETT B. & BURBIDGE A. 2007. Dealing with uncertain absences in habitat modelling: a case study of a rare ground‐dwelling parrot. Diversity and Distributions, 13: 704–713.

GIFFORD M. E. & KOZAK K. H. 2012. Islands in the sky or squeezed at the top? Ecological causes of elevational range limits in montane salamanders. Ecography, 35: 193–203.

GROVER M. C. 1998. Influence of cover and moisture on abundances of the terrestrial salamanders Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon glutinosus. Journal of Herpetology, 32: 489–497.

GUISAN A., GRAHAM C. H., ELITH J. & HUETTMANN F. 2007. Sensitivity of predictive species distribution models to change in grain size. Diversity and Distributions, 13: 332–340.

GUPTA B. K., TAPLEY B., VASUDEVAN K. & GOETZ M. 2015. Ex situ management of amphibians, Assam State Zoo cum Botanical Garden, Guwaha, Assam, India, 84 pp.

HAYASHI T. & MATSUI M. 1989. Preliminary study of phylogeny in the family Salamandridae: al-lozyme data. In: M. Matsui, T. Hikida & R. C. Goris (ed.), Current herpetology in east Asia, Kyoto, Herpetological Society of Japan: 157-167.

HE L-J., JING K., WANG Z-K., LIU P-F., ZHANG L., ZHU W-L. & DONG W-G. 2010. Thermoregulation in the Red Knobby Newt, Tylototriton shanjing. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 6:133-140 (in Chinese).

HERMANN H-J. 2005. Die Krokodilmolche der Gattung Tylototriton. Aquaristik-Fachmagazin, 18(1): 21-23.

HERMANN H-J. 2011. Terrarienatlas. Band 1. Mergus-Verlag, Melle, 1151 pp (in German).

HERNANDEZ A. 2015a. Etude des Amphibiens Urodèles en voie d’extinction et mise en place de projets de conservation au Parc Zoologique de Thoiry, Mémoire de Master II Biologie, première partie, sous la direction de Philippe Poggi, Corse, Università di Corsica Pasquale Paoli, Corte, 224p.

HERNANDEZ A. 2015b. Ranodon sibiricus KESSLER, 1866 : La salamandre du Semiretchensk : Histoire naturelle, élevage et perspectives conservatoires. AFT. Situla 27: 2-11.

HERNANDEZ A. 2016a. Etude sur les Urodèles en voie de disparition. Edilivre editions, Paris. 120 pp.

HERNANDEZ A. 2016b. Tylototriton ANDERSON, 1871 : Observation du genre en Thaïlande et éléments de réflexions sur la diversité des sous-genres Yaotriton et Tylototriton. AFT, Revue Francophone d’Herpétoculture, Situla 28: 12-25.

HERNANDEZ A. 2016c. Le genre relicte Echinotriton NUSSBAUM & BRODIE, 1982 en Asie du sud-est, AFT, Revue Francophone d’Herpétoculture, Situla 29.

HERNANDEZ A. 2016d. Le genre Echinotriton en Asie du sud-est: de véritables fossiles au bord de l’extinction. Edilivre editions, Paris. 70 pp.

HERNANDEZ A., ESCORIZA D. & HOU M. 2016. Habitat selection of the endangered Crocodile newts Echinotriton (in press).

HIJMANS R.J., CAMERON S. E, PARRA J. L., JONES P. G. & JARVIS A. 2005. Very high resolution interpolated global terrestrial climate surfaces. International Journal of Climatology, 25: 1965–1978.

HILTON-TAYLOR C., POLLOCK C. M., CHANSON J. S., BUTCHART S. H. M., OLDfiELD T. E. E. & KATARIYA V. 2009. State of the world’s species. In: Vié J. C., Hilton-Taylor C. & Stuart S. N. (eds.) Wildlife in a Changing World, an Analysis of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 15–42.

HOOGMOED M. S. 1978. An annonated review of the Salamander types described in the Fauna Japonica. Zool. Meded, Leiden, 53: 91-105.

HOU M., LI P. P. & LÜ S. Q. 2012. Morphological research development of genus Tylototriton and primary confirmation of the status of four cryptic populations. J Huangshan Univ, 14: 61– 65 (In Chinese).

HU S., CHEN Y. & WANG T. 1996. A study on the breeding population of Tylototriton kweichowensis. Journal of Guizhou Agricultural College. 15: 37-41.

HU S., XIAO L. & BAI J. 2007. Influence of pH on Amylase Activeness of Tylototriton kweichowoensis. Journal of Bijie Teachers College, 4: 69-71 (in Chinese).

HU M-Y., WU Q-T., LI Q. & LI H-M. 2013. Study on the External Morphological Differences of Tylototriton shanjing in Mojiang and Tengchong. Animal Husbandry and Feed Science, 6: 17-19 (in Chinese).

HUMPHREY S. R. & BAIN J. R. 1990. Endangered Animals of Thailand. Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. Gainesville, FL, USA. 468 pp.

HUSON D. H. & BRYANT D. 2006. Application of phylogenetic networks in evolutionary studies. Mol Biol Evol, 23: 254–267 Kindt R., Coe R. 2011. BiodiversityR: GUI for biodiversity and community ecology analysis. Version 1.6.

ILSLEY R. F. 1990. The care and the breeding of crocodile newt. ASRA Journal 4(1): 1-2.

IUCN. 2007. Red List of Threatened Species IUCN. Downloaded Internet, 7. August 2013.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. (Accesssed 17 November 2014).

JANCOVICH J. K., DAVIDSON E. W., PARAMESWARAN N., MAO J., CHINCHAR V. G., COLLINS J. P., JACOBS B. L. & STORFER A. 2005. Evidence for emergence of an amphibian iridoviral disease because of human‐enhanced spread. Molecular Ecology, 14: 213–224.

JIANG W-B., HAKIM M., LUO L., LI B-W., YANG S-L., SONG Z., LAI R. & LU Q-M. 2015. Purification and characterization of cholecystokinin from the skin of salamander Tylototriton verrucosus. Zoological Research, 3:174-177 (in Chinese).

JIANG J-P., LI X., XIE F. & WANG B. 2009. Supplemental Survey on the Distribution of Tylototriton wenxianensis in Chongqing, China. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 4: 569-571 (in Chinese).

JUN L., LIU A. Z., XIANG L., LIU X. H. & KAI J. 2012. The breeding ecology of red knobby newts, Tylototriton shanjing. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 47(2): 8–15.

KABISCH K., HERMANN H. J. & KUHNEL K. D. 1994. Zur Faunistik, Okologie und Morphologie von Tylototriton taliangensis Liu 1950 aus Süd-Sichuan. Abhandlungen und Berichte für Naturkunde Magdeburg, 17: 109-118.

KHONSUE W., CHAIANANPORN T. & POMCHOTE P. 2010. Skeletochronological assessment of age in the Himalayan crocodile newt, Tylototriton verrucosus (Anderson, 1871) from Thailand. Tropical Natural History, Chulalongkorn University, 10(2): 181–188.

KREBS C. J. 1999. Ecological Methodology. Second Edition. Addison- Welsey Educational Publishers, Inc, Menlo Park, CA, 620 pp.

KÜHNEL K. D. 1993. Tylototriton taliangensis. Freilandbeobachtungen und erste Haltungserfahrungen. Elaphe, N. F., 1(1): 26.

KUZMIN S. L., DASGUPTA R. & SMIRINA E. M. 1994. Ecology of the Himalayan newt (Tylototriton verrucosus ) in Darjeeling Himalayas, India. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 1: 69–76.

LARSON A. 1991. A molecular perspective on the evolutionary relationships of the salamander families. Evolutionary Biology, 25: 211-277.

LARSON A. & DIMMICK W. W. 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of the salamander families : An analysis of congruence among morphological and molecular characters. Herpetological Monographs 7: 77-93.

LARSON A., WEISROCK D. W. & KOZAK K. H. 2003. Phylogenetic systematics of Salamanders. A Review. From Sever D. M.(ed). Reproductive biology and phylogeny of Urodela. 31-108. Science Publishers, Inc. Enfield (NH) USA.

LAURENT R. F. 1975. La distribution des Amphibiens et les translocations continentales. Mém. Mus. Nation. Hist. Nat. (Sér. A Zool.) (N.S.), Paris, 88 : 176-191.

LAURENT R. F. 1986. Sous-classe des Lissamphibiens. In P. Grassé et M. Delsol (Editeurs). Traité de zoologie. Anatomie, systématique, biologie. Vol. 14 Batraciens. Fasc.1B 594-797. Paris. Masson.

LE D. T., NGUYEN T. T., NISHIKAWA K., NGUYEN S. L. H., PHAM A. V., MATSUI M., BERNARDES M. & NGUYEN T. Q. 2015. A New Species of Tylototriton Anderson, 1871 (Amphibia: Salamandridae) from northern Indochina Curr Herpetol, 34(1): 38–50.

LESCURE J. & LE GARFF B. 2006. L’étymologie des noms d’amphibiens et de reptiles. Ed. Belin. Eveil Nature. 205 pp.

LESCURE J. & MASSARY DE J. C. 2012. Atlas des Amphibiens et Reptiles de France. Biotope, Mèze. Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris (collection Inventaires & biodiversité), 272 pp.

LI X-H., ZHANG K-R. & TENG J-R. 2008. Current Situation, Threatening Factors and Protective Countermeasures of Wenxian Knobby Newt. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 6:1045-1048 (in Chinese).

LI B., ZOU L-K. & LUO Y. 2011. The Survey of Tylototriton taliangensis Habitat and Its Conservation. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 6: 964-966 (in Chinese).

LI B., ZOU L-K., WANG P., LONG M., GUO F., MA B-C., LUO Y. & LIU X-L. 2012. Study on Morphological Property and Anatomy Characteristic of Digestive and Respiratory System of Tylototriton taliangensis. Journal of Sichuan Agricultural University, 1:98-102 (in Chinese).

LI B., SHI Y., LONG M., LUO Y., PENG X. & ZOU L. 2013. Histomorphological Observation on Liver of Adult Tylototriton taliangensis. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 3: 398-401 (in Chinese).

LI H-M., ZHU H-X., WANG L. & LIU J-Z. 2010. Biological characteristics and protection of Tylototriton shanjing at Mount Ailao in Xinping. Journal of Chongqing College of Education, 6:16-18 (in Chinese).

LI P-P., ZHAO E-M. & DONG B-J. 2010. amphibians and Reptiles of Tibet. Beijing: Science Press.

LI Z., ZOU L. & LUO Y. 2011. Isolation and Susceptibility Test of an Intestinal Citrobacter freundii from Tylototriton taliangensis. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 18: 11078-11080 (in Chinese).

LIN H. 2014. Chapter 7. The Classification Indices-Based Model for NPP According to the Integrated Orderly Classification System of Grassland and Its Application – pp. 172–224 in: do Rosario, C. & V. P. Pecanha-Esteves, V. P. (eds.): CO2 Sequestration and Valorization. InTechOpen. Accessed 10 September 2015.

LIU X., ZHANG X., LI J., LI X. & JING K. 2013. Rainfall Shaped Breeding Activities of Tylototriton shanjing. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 6: 867-872 (in Chinese).

LIU C. 1950. amphibians of western China. Fieldana zool. Mem., Chicago Nat. Hist. Mus., 2, 400 pp.

LIU C-C & HU S-Q. 1959. Preliminary report of Amphibia from southern Yunnan. Acta Zoologica Sinica 11:4509–533.

LIU C-C & HU S-Q. 1962. A herpetological report of Kwangsi. Acta Zoologica Sinica 14:suppl.73–104.

LIU X., LIU K., YANG S., LIU S., ZHAO X., ZUO L., JIANG Z. & YU D. 2001. Alkaline Phosphatase from Tylototriton Taliangensis. Chinese Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1:135-138 (in Chinese).

LORIUS C. & CARPENTIER L. 2010. Voyage dans l’Anthropocène, cette nouvelle ère dont nous sommes les héros. Actes Sud. 195 pp.

LUU V. Q., LE C. X., DO H. Q., HOANG T. T., NGUYEN T. Q., BONKOWSKI M., & ZIEGLER T. 2014. New records of amphibians from Thuong Tien Nature Reserve, Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam. Herpetology Notes 7: 51-58.

MACKINNON J., SHA M., CHEUNG C., CAREY G., XIANG Z. & MELVILLE D. 1996. A biodiversity review of China. World Wide Fund for Nature, Hong Kong.

MATHIS A., JAEGER R. G., KEEN W. H., DUCEY P. K., WALLS S. C. & BUCHANAN B. W. 1995. Aggression and territoriality by salamanders and a comparison with the territorial behaviour of frogs. 633–676 pp. in: Heatwole, H. (ed.): Amphibian biology, vol. 2: social behaviour. Chipping Norton: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

MANSUKHANI M., JULAKA J. & SANKAR H. 1976. On the occurrences of the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson from Arunachal Pradesh, India. Newsletter Zoological Survey, India, 2: 243–245.

MARTEL A., PPITZEN-VAN DER SLULIS A., BLOOI M., BERT W., DUCATELLE R., FISHER M.C., WOELTJES A., BOSMAN W., CHIERS K., BOSSUYT F. & PASMANS F. 2013. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov. causes chytridiomicosis in amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(38), 15325–15329.

MARTEL A., BLOOI M., ADRIAENSEN C., VAN ROOIJ P., BEUKEMA W., FISHER M. C., FARRER R. A., SCHMIDT B. R., TOBLER U., GOKA K., LIPS K. R., MULETZ C., ZAMUDIO K. R., BOSCH J., LÖTTERS S., WOMBWELL E., GARNER T. W. J., CUNNINGHAM A. A., SPITZEN-VAN DER SLUIJS A., SALVIDIO S., DUCATELLE R., NISHIKAWA K., NGUYEN T. T., KOLBY J. E., VAN BOCXLAER I., BOSSUYT F. & PASMANS F. 2014. Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders. Science, 346(6209), 630–631.

MARJANOVIĆ D. & WITZMANN F. 2015. An extremely peramorphic newt (Urodela: Salamandridae: Pleurodelini) from the Latest Oligocene of Germany, and a new phylogenetic analysis of extant and extinct Salamandrids. PLoS ONE, 10: e0137068.

MENZER C. 1992. Care and breeding of the warty crocodile newt. Nordisk Herpetologisk Forening 35(6): 90-91.

MICHAELS C. 2015. Field observations, morphometrics and a new locality for Tylototriton uyenoi in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Herpetological Bulletin, 130(130): 26-27.

MILNER A. R. 2000. Mesozoic and Tertiary Caudata and Albanerpetontidae. Heatwole, H. F. & R. L. Carroll eds., Amphibian Biology, 4: 1412-1444.

MUDRACK W. 2005. Nachzucht von Krokodilmolchen, Tylototriton shanjing. Amphibia, 4(1): 23-25.

NABHITABHATA J. 1987. Wildlife in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park. Kog-Ma Watershed Research Bulletin, Bangkok, 48: 1-42 (in Thai).

NABHITABHATA J. & CHAN-ARD T. 2005. Thailand red data: mammals, reptiles and amphibians. Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok, 158 pp.

NABHITABHATA J., CHAN-ARD T. & CHUAYNKERN, Y. 2000. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles in Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok, 152 pp.

NAG S. & VASUDEVAN K. 2014. Observations on overwintering larvae of Tylototriton verrucosus (Caudata: Salamandridae) in Darjeeling, Himalaya, India. Salamandra, 50(4): 245–248

NAKAMURA K. & UENO S. 1974. Japanese Reptiles and amphibians in colour. Hoikusha, Osaka, 214 pp.

NEI M. 1972. Genetic distance between populations. American Naturalist 106: 283-292.

NGUYEN S. V., HO C. T. & NGUYEN T. Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. 768 pp.

NGUYEN Q. T., SANG N. V., LOAN H. T., QUYET L. K. & TAO N. T. 2009. Phylogenetic Relationships and Taxonomic Review of the Family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata) from Vietnam. Tap chi Cong nghe Sinh hoc, 7(3): 325-333 (in Vietnamese).

NISHIKAWA K., KHONSUE W., POMCHOTE P. & MATSUI M. 2013a. Two new species of Tylototriton from Thailand (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae). Zootaxa, 3737(3): 261–279

NISHIKAWA K., MATSUI M. & NGUYEN T. T. 2013b. A new species of Tylototriton from northern Vietnam (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae). Curr Herpetol, 32: 34–49.

NISHIKAWA K., MATSUI M. & RAO D.Q. 2014. A new species of Tylototriton (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae) from central Myanmar. Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc, 60(1): 9–22.

NISHIKAWA K., RAO D-Q., MATSUI M. & ETO K. 2015. Taxonomic relationship between Tylototriton daweishanensis Zhao, Rao, Liu, Li and Yuan, 2012 and T. yangi Hou, Li and Liu, 2012 (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae). Current Herpetology. Kyoto, 34: 67-74.

NUTPHUND W. 2001. amphibians of Thailand, Amarin Printing and Publishing Public Co., Ltd., Bangkok, 320 pp (in Thai).

NUSSBAUM R. A. & BRODIE E. D. 1982. Partitioning of the salamandrid genus Tylototriton Anderson with a description of a new genus. Herpetologica, 38(2): 320-332.

NUSSBAUM R. A., BRODIE E. D. JR. & DATONG Y. 1995. A taxonomic review of Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson. Herpetologica 51(3): 257-268.

OLSON D. M., DINERSTEIN E., WIKRAMANAYAKE E. D., BURGESS N. D., POWELL G. V., UNDERWOOD E. C., D’AMICO J. A., ITOUA I., STRAND H. E., MORRISON J. C., LOUCKS C. J., ALLNUTT T. F., RICKETTS T. H., KURA Y., LAMOREUX J. F., WETTENGEL W. W., HEDAO P. & KASSEM K. R. 2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth; a new global map of terrestrial ecoregions provides an innovative tool for conserving biodiversity. BioScience, 51(11): 933–938.

ORLOV N. L., MURPHY R. W., ANANJEVA N. B., RYABOV S. A. & HO T. C. 2002. Herpetofauna of Vietnam, a checklist. Part 1. Amphibia. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 9: 81–104.

PAL N. L. & DASGUPTA B. 1980. Observation on two new species of Balantidium in the Indian salamander, Tylototriton verrucosus (Caudata: Salamandridae). Proc. Zool. Soc. Calcutta, 31: 47-51.

PAL N. L., BANERJEE M. & DASGUPTA B. 1982. Cytochemical observations on Balantidia parasitic in Indian salamander. J. Bengal Nat. Hist. Soc., 1(1): 11-26.

PALDEN J. 2003. New records of Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson, 1871 from Bhutan. Hamadryad, 27: 286–287.

PANIGRAHI A. 2000. Behavioral adaptation for thermoregulation in the Himalayan newts Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson. Environment and ecology. 2000. 18(1): 255-257.

PARKER M. S. 1991. Relationship between cover availability and larval Pacific giant salamander density. Journal of Herpetology, 25: 355–357.

PASMANS F., BLAHAK S., MARTEL A., PANTCHEV N. & ZWART P. 2008. Ranavirus-associated mass mortality in imported red tailed knobby newts (Tylototriton kweichowensis): a case report. Veterinary journal, London, England, 176(2):257-9.

PASMANS F., BOGAERTS S., JANSSEN H. & SPARREBOOM M. 2014. Salamanders - keeping and breeding. Natur und Tier-Verlag, Münster.

PASTEUR G. 1958. Sur la systématique des espèces du genre Pleurodeles. Bull. Soc. Sci. nat. phys. Maroc, 38(3): 157-165.

PENG D-Y., XIAO X-L. & LI H-M. 2015. Studies on Histology of Excretory and Reproductive Systems in Tylototriton shanjing. Yuxi Normal University, Hubei Agricultural Sciences, 14: 3466-3469.

PETRANKA J. W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London. 587 pp.

PEARSON R. G., RAXWORTHY C. J., NAKAMURA M. & PETERSON A. T. 2007. Predicting species distributions from small numbers of occurrence records: a test case using cryptic geckos in Madagascar. Journal of Biogeography, 34: 102–117.

PEEL M. C., FINLAYSON B. L. & MCMAHON T. A. 2007. Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 4: 439–473.

PHILLIPS S. J., DUDIK M. & SCHAPIRE R. E. 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190: 231–259.

PHIMMACHAK S., STUART B. L. & SIVONGXAY N. 2012. Distribution, natural history and conservation of the Lao newt (Laotriton laoensis) (Caudata: Salamandridae). Journal of Herpetology, 46(1): 120–128.

PHIMMACHAK S., AOWPHOL A. & STUART B. 2015. Morphological and molecular variation in Tylototriton (Caudata: Salamandridae) in Laos, with description of a new species. Zootaxa, 4006(2): 285–310

PHIMMACHAK S., STUART B. & AOWPHOL A. 2015. Ecology and natural history of the knobby newt Tylototriton podichthys (Caudata: Salamandridae) in Laos. Raffles bulletin of Zoology, 63: 389-400.

POMCHOTE P., PUTSATEE P. &WICHASE K. 2008. Two Distinctive Color Patterns of the Himalayan Newt Tylototriton verrucosus (Urodela: Salamandridae) Found in Thailand and Its Implication on Geographic Segregation. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University, 8(1): 35-43.

POPE C. H. 1931. Notes on amphibians from Fukien, Hainan and other parts of China. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist., New York, 61: 397-612.

POPE C. H. 1935. Reptiles of China.Vol. 10. Natural history of Central Asia. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 604 pp.

POPE C. H. & BORING A. M. 1940. A survey of Chinese amphibia. Peking nat. Hist. Bull., 15(1): 13-86.

QUANTUM–GIS DEVELOPMENT TEAM. 2013. QGIS vs 2.0.1–Dufour. – Open Source Geospatial Foundation project. Accessed on 12 June 2013.

QIAN H. & RICKLEFS R. E. 2000. Large-scale processes and the Asian bias in species diversity of temperate plants. Nature, 407: 180–182.

QIAN H., WANG X., WANG S. & LI Y. 2007. Environmental determinants of amphibian and reptile species richness in China. Ecography, 30: 471–482.

QI X-M., ZHOU Z-L., WEI G. & LIN P. 2015. Study on the Population and Quantity Condition of Tylototriton hainanensis in Bawangling Nature Reserve. Management Bureau of Bawangling National Nature Reserve in Hainan, Sichuan Forestry Exploration and Design, 1:44-46 (in Chinese).

QIN W-G., TANG X-P., QIN G-L. & WEI L-Y. 2012. Preliminary Survey of Tylototriton asperrimus Habitat in Mulun Nature Reserve, Guangxi. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 2: 303-306 (in Chinese).

R DEVELOPMENT CORE TEAM. 2015. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://cran.r– Accessed on 3 June 2015.

RAFFAËLLI J. 2007. Les urodèles du Monde. Penclen eds. 377 pp.

RAFFAËLLI J. 2013. Les urodèles du monde. Penclen eds. 480 pp.

RILEY S. J., DEGLORIA S. D. & ELLIOT R. 1999. A terrain ruggedness index that quantifies topographic heterogeneity. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 5: 23‒27.

RI-MING H. 1997. On the real areal-types of the Chinese endemic genera of seed plants. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 35: 481–493.

RISCH J-P. 1985. The Himalayan Salamander and its relatives: a short review of the Pleurodelinae (Amphibia, Caudata, Salamandridae). Journal of the Bengal Natural History Society Darjeeling, New Series, 4: 139-143.

RONQUIST F. & HUELSENBECK J. P. 2003. MRBAYES 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572-1574.

ROY D. & MUSHAHIDUNNABI M. 2001. Courtship, mating and egg- laying in Tylototriton verrucosus from the Darjeeling District of the eastern Himalaya. Current Science, 81(6): 693–695.

ROWLEY J., BROWN R., BAIN R., KUSRINI M., INGER R., STUART B., WOGAN, G., THY N., CHAN-ARD T., TRUNG C. T., DIESMOS A., ISKANDAR D. T., LAU M., MING L. T., MAKCHAI C., TRUONG N. Q. & PHIMMACHAK, S. 2010. Impending conservation crisis for southeast Asian amphibians. Biology Letters, 6(3): 336–338.

SATO I. 1943. Traité général sur les Urodèles du Japon. Nippon Publ. Co., Osaka, 520 pp.

SCHLEICH H. H. & KÄSTLE W. 2002. amphibians and reptiles of Nepal. Biology, Systematics, Field Guide. Germany: A.R.G Gantner Verlag K.G.

SCHOCH R. R. & RASSER M. W. 2013. A new salamandrid from the Miocene Randeck Maar, Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33: 58, doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.716113.

SCHÖTTLER T. 2003. Eine Molch-Reise nach Nordvietnam. Amphibia, 2: 23-24.

SCHULTSCHIK G. & GROSSE W. 2013. Threatened Newts and Salamanders of the World –Guidelines for Conservation Breeding. Mertensiella 20e supplement to Salamandra, DGHT, 168 pp.

SCLATER W. L. 1892. A List of the Batrachia of the Indian Museum. London: Taylor & Francis.

SEGLIE D., ROY D., GIACOMA C. & MUSHAHIDUNNABI M. 2003. Distribution and conservation of the Himalayan Newt (Tylototriton verrucosus, Urodela, Salamandridae) in the Darjeeling District, west Bengal (India). Russian Journal of Herpetology, 10(2): 159–164.

SEGLIE D., ROY D. & GIACOMA C. 2010. Sexual dimorphism and age structure in a population of Tylototriton verrucosus (Amphibia: Salamandridae) from the Himalayan Region. Copeia, 2010(4): 600–608.

SETHY J. & CHAUHAN N. P. S. 2011. Himalayan Newt (Tylototriton verrucosus) in Namdapaha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Frog leg, 16: 24-25.

SHARIFI M. & ASSADIAN S. 2004. Distribution and Conservation status of Neurergus microspilotus in western Iran. Asiatic Herpetological Research. 10: 224-229.

SHARIFI M., FARASAT H. & VAISSI S. 2012. Sexual dimorphism in Neurergus kaiseri in south-western Zagros Mountains, Iran. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 6(4): 1-8.

SHEN Y. H., JIANG J. P. & MO X. Y. 2012. A new species of the genus Tylototriton (Amphibia, Salamandridae) from Hunan, China. Asian Herpetology Research, 1(3): 21–30.

SHRESTHA T. K. 1989. Ecological aspects of the life-history of the Himalayan newt, Tylototriton verrucosus (ANDERSON) with reference to conservation and management. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 86(3): 333–338.

SKERRATT L. F., BERGER L., SPEARE R., CASHINS S., MCDONALD K. R., PHILLOTT A. D., HINES H. B. & KENYON N. 2007. Spread of chytridiomycosis has caused the rapid global decline and extinction of frogs. EcoHealth 4: 125-134.

SMITH M. A. 1924. The tadpole of Tylototriton verrucosus ANDERSON. Rec. Indian Mus., 26: 309-310.

SONG S. & YANG G. 2014. Hematological Observation of Tylototriton shanjing. Journal of Dali Teachers College, 12:48-51 (in Chinese).

SUVATTI C. 1965. A survey on salamander at Chiang Mai. Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 2 pp (in Thai).

SPARREBOOM M. 1999. Haltung und Nachzucht von Tylototriton verrucosus. Elaphe, 7: 20-24.

SPARREBOOM M., NGUYEN T. T., BOGAERTS S., PASMANS F. & MARTEL A. 2011. Tylototriton asperrimus (Black Knobby Newt) reproduction. Herpetological Review, 42: 81-82.

SPARREBOOM M. & WU Y. 2011. Life Desks, Salamanders of China Lifedesk, (last accessed in 2016). SPARREBOOM M. 2014. Salamanders of the old world. Zeist, the Netherland: KNNV Publishing. 432 pp.

SPITZEN-VAN DER SLUIJS A., SPIKMANS F., BOSMAN W., DE ZEEUW M., VAN DER MEIJ T., GOVERSE E., KIK M., PASMANS F. & MARTEL A. 2013. Rapid enigmatic decline drives the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) to the edge of extinction in the Netherlands. Amphibia Reptilia, 34:233–239.

STANISZEWSKI M. 2011. - Salamanders and Newts of north Africa, Europe and western Asia. Terralog, Chimaira eds. 21: 160 pp.

STEBBINS R. C. 2003. A field guide to western Reptiles and amphibians. Third Edition. Peterson Field Guides. 533 pp.

STEBBINS R. C. & COHEN N. W. 1995. A Natural History of amphibians: Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 316 pp.

STEINFARTZ S., VEITH M., TAUTZ D. 2000. Mitochondrial sequence analysis of Salamandra taxa suggests old splits of major lineages and postglacial recolonizations of Central Europe from distinct source populations of Salamandra salamandra. Molecular Ecology 9: 397-410.

STEYER S. 2009. La Terre avant les dinosaures, éditions Belin, Pour la Science, 208 pp.

STUART B. L., PHIMMACHAK S., SIVONGXAY N., ROBICHAUD W. G. 2010. A new species in the Tylototriton asperrimus group (Caudata: Salamandridae) from central Laos. Zootaxa, 2650: 19–32.

STUART S. N., CHANSON J. S., COX N. A., YOUNG B. E., RODRIGUES A. S-L., FISCHMAN D. L. & WALLER R. W. 2004. Status and trends of Amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science reprint. 306: 1783-1786.

STUART S. N., HOFFMANN M., CHANSON J. S., COX N. A., BERRIDGE R. J., RAMANI P. & YOUNG B. E. 2008. Threatened amphibians of the World, Lynx Eds, Barcelona, Spain. 758 pp.

SU Y-C., XIAO X-L. & LI H-M. 2014. Anatomy Observation on Digestive and Respiratory in Red Knobby Newt, Tylototriton shanjing. Tianjin Agricultural Sciences, 5: 96-100 (in Chinese).

SUN S. J., DAI Q., DAI Z. X., ZHANG H. M., GONG R. H., DU J. F., ZOU H. S. & NIE C. A. 2011. Population resource and habitat selection in summer of black knobby newt (Tylototriton asperrimus) in surrounding areas of Houhe National Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 30(11): 2534– 2539.

TAMURA K., STECHER G., PETERSON D., FILIPSKI A. & KUMAR S. 2013. MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol, 30(12): 2725–2729.

TAYLOR E.H. 1962. The amphibian fauna of Thailand. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 43(8): 265-599.

TEMPLETON A. R. 1989. The meaning of species and speciation: a genetic perspective. In D. Otte & J. A. Endler (ed.), Speciation and its consequences, Sunderland, Mass., Sinauer: 3-27.

TIAN Y., SU A. & LI S. 1998. Studies on reproductive ecology of Tylototriton kweichowensis Fang and Chang. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 17(2): 60–64.

THIEN T. N., MARTEL A., BRUTYN M., BOGAERTS S., SPARREBOOM M., HAESEBROUCK F., FISHER M.C., BEUKEMA W., DUONG VAN T., CHIERS K. & PASMANS F. 2013. A survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in endangered and highly susceptible Vietnamese salamanders (Tylototriton spp.). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44(3): 627-633.

THORN R. 1966. Salamandres et Tritons. Aperçu sur l’ordre des Urodèles avec quelques considérations sur la phylogénie de ces animaux. Bull. Soc. Nat. lux., Luxembourg, 1964, 69: 101-111.

THORN R. 1968. Les salamandres d’Europe, d’Asie et d’Afrique du Nord. Paris, éditions Paul Lechevalier. 376 pp.

THORN R. 1991. Observations et notes sur diverses espèces de salamandres. Bull. Soc. Nat. lux., 92: 79-83.

THORN R. & RAFFAËLLI J. 2000. Les salamandres de l’ancien monde. Ed. Boubée, Paris. 449 pp.

UNTERSTEIN W. 1930. Beiträge zur Lurch-und Kriechtierfauna Kgwangsis. II. Schuanzlurche. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, 1929: 314-315 (in German).

UTSUNOMIYA Y., UTSUNOMIYA T. & KAWACHI S. 1978. Some ecological observations of Tylototriton andersoni, a terrestrial salamander occurring in the Tokunoshima Island. Proceedings of the Japan Academy Series B: 341-346.

UTSUNOMIYA. T. & MATSUI M. 2002. Male courtship behavior of Tylotriton (Echinotriton) andersoni Boulenger under laboratory condition. Current Herpetol, 21:67–74, Doi:10.5358/hsj.21.67.

VEITH M. & STEINFARTZ S. 2004. When non-monophyly results in taxonomic consequences – the case of Mertensiella within the Salamandridae. Salamandra, 40(1): 67-80.

VEITH M., STEINFARTZ S., ZARDOYA R., SEITZ A. L. & MEYER A. 1998. A molecular phylogeny of “true” salamanders (family Salamandridae) and the evolution of terrestriality of reproductive modes. Journal of zoological Systematics and evolutionary Research, 36 (1-2): 7-16.

VENCZEL M. 2008. A new salamandrid amphibian from the Middle Miocene of Hungary and its phylogenetic relationships. Journal of systematic Paleontology, 6(1): 41-59.

VIEITES D. R., NIETO-ROMAN S. & WAKE D. B. 2009. Reconstruction of the climate envelopes of salamanders and their evolution through time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the USA (suppl. 2), 19715-19722.

WANG S. & ZHAO E. 1998. China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals. Amphibia and Reptilia. National Environmental Protection Agency, Endangered Species Scientific Commission, Science Press, Beijing, Hong-Kong, New-York, 334 pp.

WANG H., LIAO C., WANG H., WANG Y., XU B. & CAI J. 2013. Study on Distribution, Population and Habitat Factors of Tylototriton hainanensis in Yinggeling Nature Reserve. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 3: 434-437 (in Chinese).

WANG N-N., LIU S-L. & ZENG L. 2011. Histological Observation on Skin of Tylototriton taliangensis. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 1: 66-68 (in Chinese).

WANG Y., YANG X-L., HE J-J., CUI W-H., WANG H. & WANG Z-F. 2011. Morphological and Histological Observation on the Digestive Tract and Liver in Tylototriton wenxianensis. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 2: 227-230.

WANGYAL J. & GURUNG D. 2012. The distribution of Himalayan Newts, Tylototriton verrucosus in the Punakha-Wangdue Valley, Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 4(13): 3218–3222.

WAKE D. B. 1991. Declining amphibian populations. Science 253:860.

WAKE D. B. 2006. Problems with species : patterns and processes of species formation in salamanders. Annals of the Missouri botanical garden. 93(1): 8-23.

WAKE D. B. 2012.Taxonomy of salamanders of the family Plethodontidae. Zootaxa 3484: 75-82.

WAKE D. B. & BRAME A. H. JR. 1963. The status of the plethodontid salamanders genera Bolitoglossa and Magnadigita. Copeia, 1963(2): 382-387.

WAKE D. B. & OZETI N. 1969. Evolutionary relationships in the family Salamandridae. Copeia 1969: 124-137.

WAKE D. B. & VREDENBURG. 2008. Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 105: 11466-11473.

WEISROCK D. W., HARMON L. J. & LARSON A. 2005. Resolving deep phylogenetic relationships in Salamanders : Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genome data. Systematic biology. 54(5): 758-777.

WEISROCK D. W., PAPENFUSS T. J., MACEY J. R., LITVINCHUK S. N., POLYMENI R., UGURTAS I. H., ZHAO E. M., JOWKAR H. & LARSON A. 2006. A molecular assessment of phylogenetic relationships and lineage accumulation rates within the family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata). Mol Phyl Evol, 41(2): 368–383.

WELLS K. D. 2007. The Ecology and Behaviour of amphibians. Chicago University Press. 1148 pp.

WIENS J. J. 2007. Global patterns of diversification and species richness in amphibians. American Naturalist, 170: S86-S106.

WILSON L. D., TOWNSEND J. H. & JOHNSON J. D. 2010. Conservation of Mesoamerican amphibians and Reptiles. Eagle Mountain Publishing. 812 pp.

WONGRATANA T. 1984. Range extension of the Crocodile Salamander, Tylototriton verrucosus, to Phu Luang, Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society, 32: 107–110.

WU P., YANG G. & WANG Z. 2013. The Effects of Temperature on the Embryonic Development of Tylototriton shanjing Nussbaum, Brodie & Yang 1995. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 6: 879-882,796 (in Chinese).

XIAO Y., CHEN G-Z. & GU X-M. 2010. Sequence Variation of Mitochondrial DNA D-loop including tRNAPhe and Population Genetic Diversity of Tylototriton kweichowensis. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 3:21-29 (in Chinese).

XIAO X-L. & LI H-M. 2014. Research Advances of Tylototriton shanjing. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 36: 12931-12932,12934 (in Chinese).

XIAO X-L., PENG D-Y., DU Q., LI H-M. 2014. Microanatomy Observation of Digestive System in Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson. Hubei Agricultural Sciences, 12: 2846-2849.

XIE F., LAU M. W. N., STUART S. N., CHANSON J. S., COX N. A. & FISCHMAN D. L. 2007. Conservation needs of amphibians in China: A review. Sci China C Life Sci, 50(2): 265–276.

XIANG S-J., DENG X-J., XU J. & XIAO Z-L. 2010. Early Embryonic Development of Tylototriton wenxianensis. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 6:127-132 (in Chinese).

YANG D. & RAO D. 2008. Amphibia and Reptilia of Yunnan. Yunnan Publishing Group Corporation, Kunming.

YANG G., YANG Z. & XI J. 2012. Study on Breeding Habits of Tylototriton shanjing. Journal of Dali University, 11(4): 50-52 (in Chinese).

YANG D. D., JIANG J. P., SHEN Y. H., FEI D. 2014. A new species of the genus Tylototriton (Urodela: Salamandridae) from northeastern Hunan Province, China. Asian Herpetological Research, 5(1): 1–11.

YE C., FEI L., HU S. Q. 1993. Rare and economic amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology. Chengdu. 412 pp.

YU P. & ZHAO E. 2007. Research of skeleton system of Tylototriton kweichowensis. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 1:133-136,140 (in Chinese).

YU G. H., ZHANG M. W., RAO D. Q. & YANG J. X. 2013. Effect of pleistocene climatic oscillations on the phylogeography and demography of red knobby newt (Tylototriton shanjing) from southwestern China. PloS ONE, 8(2): e56066.

YU P. J. & ZHAO E. M. 2005. A general review of research on Echinotriton and Tylototriton in China. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 24(4): 646–650.

YUAN Z-Y., JIANG K., LÜ S-Q., YANG J-X., NGUYEN Q. T., NGUYEN T. T., JIN J-Q. & CHE J. 2011. A phylogeny of the Tylototriton asperrimus group based on a mitochondrial study: suggestions for a taxonomic revision. Zoological Research, 6: 577-584.

ZHANG G. 2001. New Discovery of Amphibious Animal, Tylototriton verrucosus in Yuanjiang County. Journal of Yuxi Teachers College, 3:74-75 (in Chinese).

ZHANG M. W., YU G.H., RAO D-Q., YU G-H & YANG J-X. 2007. The Validity of Red Knobby Newt (Tylototriton shanjing) Species Status Based on Mitochondrial Cyt b Gene. Zoological Research, 4:430-436.

ZHANG M. W., YU G. H., RAO D. Q., HUANG Y., YANG J. X. & LI Y. 2013. A species boundary within the Tylototriton verrucosus group (Urodela: Salamandroidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence evidence. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advance, 12(3): 337–343.

ZHANG M. W., YU G., YANG M., LI Y., WEI J., XU H., YAO Y., WANG L., ZHANG X., RAO D. & YANG J. 2013. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the red-tailed knobby newt (Tylototriton kweichowensis). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 51: 195-202.

ZHANG P., PAPENFUSS T. J., WAKE M. H., QU L. H. & WAKE D. B. 2008. Phylogeny and biogeography of the family Salamandridae (Amphibia: Caudata) inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes. Molecular Phylogeny Evolution, 49(2): 586–597.

ZHANG P. & WAKE D. B. 2009. Higher-level salamander relationships and divergence dates inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 53: 492-508.

ZHAO E. & HU Q. 1984. Studies on Chinese tailed amphibians. Sichuan Scientific and Technical Publishing House, Chengdu. 48 pp.

ZHAO E., JIANG Y., HU Q. & YANG Y. 1988. Studies on Chinese salamanders. Society for the study of amphibians and reptiles. Oxford, Ohio. 44pp.

ZHAO E. & ADLER K. 1993. Herpetology of China. Society for the study of amphibians and reptiles. St Louis University. 521 pp.

ZHAO Y., LIU S-L. & ZHANG H-Z. 2009. Study on the Skeletal System of Tylototriton taliangensis. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 4: 561-564.

ZHAO T.Y., RAO D. Q., LIU N., LI B. & YUAN S. Q. 2012. Molecular phylogeny analysis of Tylototriton verrucosus group and description of new Species. China Forest Sci, 41: 85–89 (In Chinese).

ZHENG Y., PENG R., KURO .O M. & ZENG X. 2011. Exploring patterns and extent of bias in estimating divergence time from mitochondrial DNA sequence data in a particular lineage: a case study of salamanders (order Caudata). Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28(9): 2521-2535.

ZHENG Y. & RONG Z. 2015. Tylototriton shanjing. Image Materials, 2:16-17 (in Chinese).

ZHU Y., XU F., BAI C., LIU X., WANG S., GAO X., YAN S., LI X., LIU Z. & LI Y. 2014. A survey for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Chinese amphibians. Current Zoology 60 (6):729-735.

ZIEGLER T. 2002. Die Amphibien und Reptilien eines Tieflandfeuchtwald-Schutzgebietes in Vietnam. Münster: NTV Wissenschaft, 342 pp.

ZIEGLER T., HARTMANN T., STRAETENA K. V., KARBEA D. & BÖHME W. 2008. Captive propagation and larval morphology of Tylototriton shanjing Nussbaum, Brodie and Yang 1995, with an updated key of the genus Tylototriton (Amphibia: Salamandridae). Der Zoologische Garten, 77: 246–260.

ZUO J., HUANG H., GONG D., LI X. & LI H. 2010. Primary Survey on the Resources and Protection Countermeasures of Tailed amphibians in Baishuijiang National Nature Reserve, Gansu. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 1: 127-129, 133.